sphinx.addnodesdocument)}( rawsourcechildren](docutils.nodestarget)}(h.. _Monaco:h]
attributes}(ids]classes]names]dupnames]backrefs]refidmonacoutagnameh
lineKparenthhhsource0/Users/john/Documents/SCALE-test/docs/Monaco.rstubh section)}(hhh](h title)}(hLMonaco: A Fixed-Source Monte Carlo Transport Code for Shielding Applicationsh]h TextLMonaco: A Fixed-Source Monte Carlo Transport Code for Shielding Applications}(hh,h h*hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h h%hhh!h"hKubh paragraph)}(h*D. E. Peplow and C. Celik*h]h emphasis)}(hh>h]h/D. E. Peplow and C. Celik}(hhh hBubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h hF_{i} = \ \int_{x_{i - 1}}^{x_{i}}{f\left( x \right)\text{dx}}}(hhh jLubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh hubh/
are given. The distribution will be normalized by Monaco after reading.
The user can optionally bias a binned histogram distribution by
supplying one of the following: the biased sampling distribution
amounts,
}(h
are given. The distribution will be normalized by Monaco after reading.
The user can optionally bias a binned histogram distribution by
supplying one of the following: the biased sampling distribution
amounts,
h hhhh!NhNubh)}(hF:math:`G_{i} = \ \int_{x_{i - 1}}^{x_{i}}{g\left( x \right)\text{dx}}`h]h/>G_{i} = \ \int_{x_{i - 1}}^{x_{i}}{g\left( x \right)\text{dx}}}(hhh j_ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh hubh/;
the importance of each bin, }(h;
the importance of each bin, h hhhh!NhNubh)}(h
:math:`I_{i}`h]h/I_{i}}(hhh jrubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh hubh/(; or the suggested weight for
each bin, }(h(; or the suggested weight for
each bin, h hhhh!NhNubh)}(h
:math:`w_{i}`h]h/w_{i}}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh hubh/.}(h.h hhhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hKSh hhhubh;)}(hBased on what type of input is given, Monaco will compute a properly
normalized probability distribution function for sampling. If the
importances are given, the sampling distribution is computed ash]h/Based on what type of input is given, Monaco will compute a properly
normalized probability distribution function for sampling. If the
importances are given, the sampling distribution is computed as}(hjh jhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hKch hhhubh)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hequation-monaco-1uhh
h hhhh!h"hNubh
math_block)}(h2G_{i} = \frac{I_{i}F_{i}}{\sum_{i}^{}{I_{i}F_{i}}}h]h/2G_{i} = \frac{I_{i}F_{i}}{\sum_{i}^{}{I_{i}F_{i}}}}(hhh jubah}(h]jah]h]h]h]docnameMonaconumberKlabelMonaco-1nowrap xml:spacepreserveuhjh!h"hKgh hhhexpect_referenced_by_name}expect_referenced_by_id}jjsubh;)}(hMIf suggested weights are given, then the sampling distribution is
computed ash]h/MIf suggested weights are given, then the sampling distribution is
computed as}(hjh jhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hKlh hhhubh)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hequation-monaco-2uhh
h hhhh!h"hNubj)}(hBG_{i} = \frac{\frac{F_{i}}{w_{i}}}{\sum_{i}^{}\frac{F_{i}}{w_{i}}}h]h/BG_{i} = \frac{\frac{F_{i}}{w_{i}}}{\sum_{i}^{}\frac{F_{i}}{w_{i}}}}(hhh jubah}(h]jah]h]h]h]docnamejnumberKlabelMonaco-2nowrapjjuhjh!h"hKoh hhhj}j}jjsubh;)}(hfor bins with non-zero weight. The sampling distribution for bins with a
suggested weight of zero are set to :math:`G_{i} = \ 0`. When sampled,
particles are assigned a weight of :math:`\frac{F_{i}}{G_{i}}`.h](h/mfor bins with non-zero weight. The sampling distribution for bins with a
suggested weight of zero are set to }(hmfor bins with non-zero weight. The sampling distribution for bins with a
suggested weight of zero are set to h jhhh!NhNubh)}(h:math:`G_{i} = \ 0`h]h/G_{i} = \ 0}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jubh/3. When sampled,
particles are assigned a weight of }(h3. When sampled,
particles are assigned a weight of h jhhh!NhNubh)}(h:math:`\frac{F_{i}}{G_{i}}`h]h/\frac{F_{i}}{G_{i}}}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jubh/.}(hjh jhhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hKth hhhubh;)}(hXHThe second type of distribution that a user can define is for a series
of point values of a function. For a set of :math:`n + 1` point pairs,
:math:`\left( x_{i},\ f_{i} \right)` for
:math:`i \in \left\lbrack 0\ldots n \right\rbrack`, defining :math:`n`
intervals, a distribution can be made by linearly interpolating between
adjacent point pairs. This type of distribution can also be biased by
supplying one of the following: the biased sampling distribution
function value :math:`g_{i}` at each point, the importance of each
point, :math:`I_{i}`; or the suggested weight for each point,
:math:`w_{i}`. Similar to above, if importances or weights are given,
Monaco computes the biased distribution for sampling. For the
value/function point pairs type of distribution, the weight assigned to
the sampled particle is a continuous function.h](h/sThe second type of distribution that a user can define is for a series
of point values of a function. For a set of }(hsThe second type of distribution that a user can define is for a series
of point values of a function. For a set of h j3hhh!NhNubh)}(h
:math:`n + 1`h]h/n + 1}(hhh j<ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh j3ubh/ point pairs,
}(h point pairs,
h j3hhh!NhNubh)}(h$:math:`\left( x_{i},\ f_{i} \right)`h]h/\left( x_{i},\ f_{i} \right)}(hhh jOubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh j3ubh/ for
}(h for
h j3hhh!NhNubh)}(h2:math:`i \in \left\lbrack 0\ldots n \right\rbrack`h]h/*i \in \left\lbrack 0\ldots n \right\rbrack}(hhh jbubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh j3ubh/, defining }(h, defining h j3hhh!NhNubh)}(h :math:`n`h]h/n}(hhh juubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh j3ubh/
intervals, a distribution can be made by linearly interpolating between
adjacent point pairs. This type of distribution can also be biased by
supplying one of the following: the biased sampling distribution
function value }(h
intervals, a distribution can be made by linearly interpolating between
adjacent point pairs. This type of distribution can also be biased by
supplying one of the following: the biased sampling distribution
function value h j3hhh!NhNubh)}(h
:math:`g_{i}`h]h/g_{i}}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh j3ubh/. at each point, the importance of each
point, }(h. at each point, the importance of each
point, h j3hhh!NhNubh)}(h
:math:`I_{i}`h]h/I_{i}}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh j3ubh/*; or the suggested weight for each point,
}(h*; or the suggested weight for each point,
h j3hhh!NhNubh)}(h
:math:`w_{i}`h]h/w_{i}}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh j3ubh/. Similar to above, if importances or weights are given,
Monaco computes the biased distribution for sampling. For the
value/function point pairs type of distribution, the weight assigned to
the sampled particle is a continuous function.}(h. Similar to above, if importances or weights are given,
Monaco computes the biased distribution for sampling. For the
value/function point pairs type of distribution, the weight assigned to
the sampled particle is a continuous function.h j3hhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hKxh hhhubh;)}(hSome commonly used distributions are built into Monaco and can be used
by simple keywords. Monaco can produce a graph of any distribution so
that the user can verify that the input was entered correctly.h]h/Some commonly used distributions are built into Monaco and can be used
by simple keywords. Monaco can produce a graph of any distribution so
that the user can verify that the input was entered correctly.}(hjh jhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hKh hhhubeh}(h]
distributionsah]h]h]
distributionsah]uhh#h hhhh!h"hKQ
referencedKubh$)}(hhh](h))}(h)Spatial energy and directional attributesh]h/)Spatial energy and directional attributes}(hjh jhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h jhhh!h"hKubh;)}(h_Each Monaco source is described by three separable components: spatial,
energy and directional.h]h/_Each Monaco source is described by three separable components: spatial,
energy and directional.}(hjh jhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hKh jhhubh;)}(hX[The spatial component of a source in Monaco is simple but very flexible.
First, the general shape of the source region is defined in global
coordinates. The basic solid shapes and their allowed degenerate cases
are listed in :numref:`Monaco-tab1`. The user can reference any of the defined
distributions to describe the source distribution in any coordinate
(*x*, *y*, and *z* for cuboids, *r* and *z* for cylinders and *r* for
spheres) to use for sampling or leave the source distribution as uniform
over each dimension for the solid shape. The source region can be
limited by the underlying SGGP geometry variables of unit, media, and
mixture. This way, source volumes (or planes, lines, or points) can be
defined that are independent or dependent on the model geometry. A
cylinder or cylindrical shell region can be oriented with its axis in
any direction.h](h/The spatial component of a source in Monaco is simple but very flexible.
First, the general shape of the source region is defined in global
coordinates. The basic solid shapes and their allowed degenerate cases
are listed in }(hThe spatial component of a source in Monaco is simple but very flexible.
First, the general shape of the source region is defined in global
coordinates. The basic solid shapes and their allowed degenerate cases
are listed in h jhhh!NhNubhpending_xref)}(h:numref:`Monaco-tab1`h]h literal)}(hj
h]h/Monaco-tab1}(hhh jubah}(h]h](xrefstd
std-numrefeh]h]h]uhjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]refdocj refdomainjreftypenumrefrefexplicitrefwarn reftargetmonaco-tab1uhjh!h"hKh jubh/q. The user can reference any of the defined
distributions to describe the source distribution in any coordinate
(}(hq. The user can reference any of the defined
distributions to describe the source distribution in any coordinate
(h jhhh!NhNubhA)}(h*x*h]h/x}(hhh j1ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jubh/, }(h, h jhhh!NhNubhA)}(h*y*h]h/y}(hhh jDubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jubh/, and }(h, and h jhhh!NhNubhA)}(h*z*h]h/z}(hhh jWubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jubh/ for cuboids, }(h for cuboids, h jhhh!NhNubhA)}(h*r*h]h/r}(hhh jjubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jubh/ and }(h and h jhhh!NhNubhA)}(h*z*h]h/z}(hhh j}ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jubh/ for cylinders and }(h for cylinders and h jhhh!NhNubhA)}(h*r*h]h/r}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jubh/X for
spheres) to use for sampling or leave the source distribution as uniform
over each dimension for the solid shape. The source region can be
limited by the underlying SGGP geometry variables of unit, media, and
mixture. This way, source volumes (or planes, lines, or points) can be
defined that are independent or dependent on the model geometry. A
cylinder or cylindrical shell region can be oriented with its axis in
any direction.}(hX for
spheres) to use for sampling or leave the source distribution as uniform
over each dimension for the solid shape. The source region can be
limited by the underlying SGGP geometry variables of unit, media, and
mixture. This way, source volumes (or planes, lines, or points) can be
defined that are independent or dependent on the model geometry. A
cylinder or cylindrical shell region can be oriented with its axis in
any direction.h jhhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hKh jhhubh)}(h.. _Monaco-tab1:h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hmonaco-tab1uhh
hKh jhhh!h"ubh table)}(hhh](h))}(h:Available source shapes and their allowed degenerate casesh]h/:Available source shapes and their allowed degenerate cases}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h!h"hKh jubh tgroup)}(hhh](h colspec)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]colwidthK#uhjh jubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]colwidthK#uhjh jubh thead)}(hhh]h row)}(hhh](h entry)}(hhh]h;)}(h **Shape**h]h strong)}(hjh]h/Shape}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hKh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h**Allowable degenerate cases**h]j)}(hjh]h/Allowable degenerate cases}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hKh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubh tbody)}(hhh](j)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(hcuboidh]h/cuboid}(hjIh jGubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hKh jDubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jAubj)}(hhh]h;)}(hrectangular plane, line, pointh]h/rectangular plane, line, point}(hj`h j^ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hKh j[ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jAubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j>ubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(hcylinderh]h/cylinder}(hjh j~ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hKh j{ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jxubj)}(hhh]h;)}(hcircular plane, line, pointh]h/circular plane, line, point}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hKh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jxubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j>ubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(hcylindrical shellh]h/cylindrical shell}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hKh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh]h;)}(hPcylinder, planar annulus,
circular plane, cylindrical
surface, line, ring, pointh]h/Pcylinder, planar annulus,
circular plane, cylindrical
surface, line, ring, point}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hKh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j>ubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(hsphereh]h/sphere}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hKh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh]h;)}(hpointh]h/point}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hKh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j>ubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(hspherical shellh]h/spherical shell}(hj%h j#ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hKh j ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h sphere, spherical surface, pointh]h/ sphere, spherical surface, point}(hj<h j:ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hKh j7ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j>ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj<h jubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]colsKuhjh jubeh}(h](id20jeh]h]monaco-tab1ah]h]aligndefaultuhjh jhhh!h"hNj}jfjsj}jjsubh;)}(hXxMonaco samples the source position using either the given distributions
or uniformly over the basic solid shape and then uses rejection if any
of the optional SGGP geometry limiters have been specified. For sources
that are confined to a particular unit, media, or mixture, users should
make sure the basic solid shape tightly bounds the desired region for
efficient sampling.h]h/XxMonaco samples the source position using either the given distributions
or uniformly over the basic solid shape and then uses rejection if any
of the optional SGGP geometry limiters have been specified. For sources
that are confined to a particular unit, media, or mixture, users should
make sure the basic solid shape tightly bounds the desired region for
efficient sampling.}(hjoh jmhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hKh jhhubh;)}(hXjFor the energy component of each source, either type of distribution
described above can be used. Biasing can be used in the energy component
of the source as well. The Watt spectrum is a built-in distribution
which uses the Froehner and Spencer :cite:`froehner_method_1981` method for sampling. If the
defined energy distribution has point(s) that are out of the problem’s
energy range for a CE problem, these points will be rejected in the
source energy sampling and an error message will be generated. The
warnings will be suppressed if the number of rejected source points
exceeds a pre-defined threshold (1000).h](h/For the energy component of each source, either type of distribution
described above can be used. Biasing can be used in the energy component
of the source as well. The Watt spectrum is a built-in distribution
which uses the Froehner and Spencer }(hFor the energy component of each source, either type of distribution
described above can be used. Biasing can be used in the energy component
of the source as well. The Watt spectrum is a built-in distribution
which uses the Froehner and Spencer h j{hhh!NhNubj)}(hfroehner_method_1981h]h inline)}(hjh]h/[froehner_method_1981]}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubah}(h]id1ah]bibtexah]h]h] refdomaincitationreftyperef reftargetjrefwarnsupport_smartquotesuhjh!h"hKh j{hhubh/XX method for sampling. If the
defined energy distribution has point(s) that are out of the problem’s
energy range for a CE problem, these points will be rejected in the
source energy sampling and an error message will be generated. The
warnings will be suppressed if the number of rejected source points
exceeds a pre-defined threshold (1000).}(hXX method for sampling. If the
defined energy distribution has point(s) that are out of the problem’s
energy range for a CE problem, these points will be rejected in the
source energy sampling and an error message will be generated. The
warnings will be suppressed if the number of rejected source points
exceeds a pre-defined threshold (1000).h j{hhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hKh jhhubh;)}(hXDistributions can be used to define the directional component of the
source. A function of the cosine of the polar angle, with respect to
some reference direction in global coordinates, can be used by Monaco.
If no directional distribution is specified, the default is an isotropic
distribution (one directional bin from *µ*\ = −1 to *µ*\ =1). The
default reference direction is the positive *z*-axis (<0,0,1>).h](h/XADistributions can be used to define the directional component of the
source. A function of the cosine of the polar angle, with respect to
some reference direction in global coordinates, can be used by Monaco.
If no directional distribution is specified, the default is an isotropic
distribution (one directional bin from }(hXADistributions can be used to define the directional component of the
source. A function of the cosine of the polar angle, with respect to
some reference direction in global coordinates, can be used by Monaco.
If no directional distribution is specified, the default is an isotropic
distribution (one directional bin from h jhhh!NhNubhA)}(h*µ*h]h/µ}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jubh/
= −1 to }(h
\ = −1 to h jhhh!NhNubhA)}(h*µ*h]h/µ}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jubh/7 =1). The
default reference direction is the positive }(h7\ =1). The
default reference direction is the positive h jhhh!NhNubhA)}(h*z*h]h/z}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jubh/-axis (<0,0,1>).}(h-axis (<0,0,1>).h jhhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hKh jhhubeh}(h])spatial-energy-and-directional-attributesah]h])spatial energy and directional attributesah]h]uhh#h hhhh!h"hKubh$)}(hhh](h))}(hMonaco mesh source map filesh]h/Monaco mesh source map files}(hjh jhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h jhhh!h"hKubh;)}(hXoAn alternative to specifying the separate spatial and energy
distributions, a Monaco mesh source file can be used. A mesh source
consists of a 3D Cartesian mesh that overlay the geometry. Each mesh
cell has some probability of emitting a source particle, and within each
mesh cell, a different energy distribution can be sampled. Position
within each mesh cell is sampled uniformly, and the emission direction
is sampled from the standard directional distribution. Monaco mesh
source files are typically produced by the MAVRIC sequence or by other
Monaco calculations (see the mesh source saver option in the source
input). For a source constructed from the separable spatial and energy
distributions, Monaco can create a mesh source file which can then be
visualized using the Mesh File Viewer. This is a convenient way to
ensure that the source being used is what was intended.h]h/XoAn alternative to specifying the separate spatial and energy
distributions, a Monaco mesh source file can be used. A mesh source
consists of a 3D Cartesian mesh that overlay the geometry. Each mesh
cell has some probability of emitting a source particle, and within each
mesh cell, a different energy distribution can be sampled. Position
within each mesh cell is sampled uniformly, and the emission direction
is sampled from the standard directional distribution. Monaco mesh
source files are typically produced by the MAVRIC sequence or by other
Monaco calculations (see the mesh source saver option in the source
input). For a source constructed from the separable spatial and energy
distributions, Monaco can create a mesh source file which can then be
visualized using the Mesh File Viewer. This is a convenient way to
ensure that the source being used is what was intended.}(hjh jhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hKh jhhubeh}(h]monaco-mesh-source-map-filesah]h]monaco mesh source map filesah]h]uhh#h hhhh!h"hKubeh}(h]source-descriptionsah]h]source descriptionsah]h]uhh#h hhhh!h"hKDubh$)}(hhh](h))}(hTalliesh]h/Tallies}(hj5h j3hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h j0hhh!h"hKubh;)}(hXMonaco offers three tally types: point detectors, region tallies, and
mesh tallies. Each is useful in determining quantities of interest in
the simulation. Any number of each can be used, up to the limit of
machine memory. The tallies will compute flux for each group, the total
neutron and total photon fluxes, and any number of dose-like responses.
A typical dose-like response, *R*, is the integral over energy of the
product of a response function, :math:`f\left( E \right)`, and the flux,
:math:`\phi\left( E \right)`.h](h/X}Monaco offers three tally types: point detectors, region tallies, and
mesh tallies. Each is useful in determining quantities of interest in
the simulation. Any number of each can be used, up to the limit of
machine memory. The tallies will compute flux for each group, the total
neutron and total photon fluxes, and any number of dose-like responses.
A typical dose-like response, }(hX}Monaco offers three tally types: point detectors, region tallies, and
mesh tallies. Each is useful in determining quantities of interest in
the simulation. Any number of each can be used, up to the limit of
machine memory. The tallies will compute flux for each group, the total
neutron and total photon fluxes, and any number of dose-like responses.
A typical dose-like response, h jAhhh!NhNubhA)}(h*R*h]h/R}(hhh jJubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jAubh/E, is the integral over energy of the
product of a response function, }(hE, is the integral over energy of the
product of a response function, h jAhhh!NhNubh)}(h:math:`f\left( E \right)`h]h/f\left( E \right)}(hhh j]ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jAubh/, and the flux,
}(h, and the flux,
h jAhhh!NhNubh)}(h:math:`\phi\left( E \right)`h]h/\phi\left( E \right)}(hhh jpubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jAubh/.}(hjh jAhhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hKh j0hhubh block_quote)}(hhh](h)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hequation-monaco-3uhh
h jubj)}(h:R = \int_{}^{}{f\left(E \right)\phi \left( E \right)\ } dEh]h/:R = \int_{}^{}{f\left(E \right)\phi \left( E \right)\ } dE}(hhh jubah}(h]jah]h]h]h]docnamejnumberKlabelMonaco-3nowrapjjuhjh!h"hKh jj}j}jjsubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j0hhh!NhNubh;)}(hXbIn multigroup calculations, the total response would be expressed as the
sum over all groups :math:`R = \sum_{}^{}{f_{g}\phi_{g}}`. For CE
calculations, tallies can be segmented into energy and time bins which
can be thought of as “groups”. All three of the tally types can be
scaled with a constant – for example, to account for units conversions.h](h/]In multigroup calculations, the total response would be expressed as the
sum over all groups }(h]In multigroup calculations, the total response would be expressed as the
sum over all groups h jhhh!NhNubh)}(h%:math:`R = \sum_{}^{}{f_{g}\phi_{g}}`h]h/R = \sum_{}^{}{f_{g}\phi_{g}}}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jubh/. For CE
calculations, tallies can be segmented into energy and time bins which
can be thought of as “groups”. All three of the tally types can be
scaled with a constant – for example, to account for units conversions.}(h. For CE
calculations, tallies can be segmented into energy and time bins which
can be thought of as “groups”. All three of the tally types can be
scaled with a constant – for example, to account for units conversions.h jhhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hKh j0hhubh$)}(hhh](h))}(hTally statisticsh]h/Tally statistics}(hjh jhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h jhhh!h"hKubh;)}(hXThe three Monaco tallies are really just collections of simple and
extended tallies for each group, each total, and each group contribution
to a response or total response. The simple tally works in the following
way: a history score :math:`h_{i}` is zeroed out at the start of history
:math:`i`. During the course of the history, when an event occurs during
substep :math:`j`, a score consisting of some contribution
:math:`c_{\text{ij}}` weighted by the current particle weight
:math:`w_{\text{ij}}` is calculated and added to :math:`h_{i}`. At the
end of the history, the history score is the total weighted score for
each substep :math:`j` in the history.h](h/The three Monaco tallies are really just collections of simple and
extended tallies for each group, each total, and each group contribution
to a response or total response. The simple tally works in the following
way: a history score }(hThe three Monaco tallies are really just collections of simple and
extended tallies for each group, each total, and each group contribution
to a response or total response. The simple tally works in the following
way: a history score h jhhh!NhNubh)}(h
:math:`h_{i}`h]h/h_{i}}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jubh/' is zeroed out at the start of history
}(h' is zeroed out at the start of history
h jhhh!NhNubh)}(h :math:`i`h]h/i}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jubh/H. During the course of the history, when an event occurs during
substep }(hH. During the course of the history, when an event occurs during
substep h jhhh!NhNubh)}(h :math:`j`h]h/j}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jubh/*, a score consisting of some contribution
}(h*, a score consisting of some contribution
h jhhh!NhNubh)}(h:math:`c_{\text{ij}}`h]h/
c_{\text{ij}}}(hhh j'ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jubh/) weighted by the current particle weight
}(h) weighted by the current particle weight
h jhhh!NhNubh)}(h:math:`w_{\text{ij}}`h]h/
w_{\text{ij}}}(hhh j:ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jubh/ is calculated and added to }(h is calculated and added to h jhhh!NhNubh)}(h
:math:`h_{i}`h]h/h_{i}}(hhh jMubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jubh/\. At the
end of the history, the history score is the total weighted score for
each substep }(h\. At the
end of the history, the history score is the total weighted score for
each substep h jhhh!NhNubh)}(h :math:`j`h]h/j}(hhh j`ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jubh/ in the history.}(h in the history.h jhhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hKh jhhubj)}(hhh](h)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hequation-monaco-4uhh
h jyubj)}(h-h_{i} = \sum_{j}^{}w_{\text{ij}}c_{\text{ij}}h]h/-h_{i} = \sum_{j}^{}w_{\text{ij}}c_{\text{ij}}}(hhh jubah}(h]jah]h]h]h]docnamejnumberKlabelMonaco-4nowrapjjuhjh!h"hMh jyj}j}jj|subeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jhhh!NhNubh;)}(hXNote that the values for the contribution :math:`c_{\text{ij}}` and when
it is added to the accumulator are determined by the tally type. At the
end of the each history, the history score is added to two accumulators
(power sums) - the first accumulator is for finding the tally average,
:math:`S_{1}`, and the second accumulator is for finding the uncertainty
in the tally average, :math:`S_{2}`.h](h/*Note that the values for the contribution }(h*Note that the values for the contribution h jhhh!NhNubh)}(h:math:`c_{\text{ij}}`h]h/
c_{\text{ij}}}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jubh/ and when
it is added to the accumulator are determined by the tally type. At the
end of the each history, the history score is added to two accumulators
(power sums) - the first accumulator is for finding the tally average,
}(h and when
it is added to the accumulator are determined by the tally type. At the
end of the each history, the history score is added to two accumulators
(power sums) - the first accumulator is for finding the tally average,
h jhhh!NhNubh)}(h
:math:`S_{1}`h]h/S_{1}}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jubh/R, and the second accumulator is for finding the uncertainty
in the tally average, }(hR, and the second accumulator is for finding the uncertainty
in the tally average, h jhhh!NhNubh)}(h
:math:`S_{2}`h]h/S_{2}}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jubh/.}(hjh jhhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jhhubj)}(hhh](h)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hequation-monaco-5uhh
h jubj)}(hS_{1} = \ \sum_{i}^{}h_{i}^{\ }h]h/S_{1} = \ \sum_{i}^{}h_{i}^{\ }}(hhh jubah}(h]jah]h]h]h]docnamejnumberKlabelMonaco-5nowrapjjuhjh!h"hMh jj}j}jjsubh)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hequation-monaco-6uhh
h jubj)}(hS_{2} = \ \sum_{i}^{}h_{i}^{2}h]h/S_{2} = \ \sum_{i}^{}h_{i}^{2}}(hhh jubah}(h]jah]h]h]h]docnamejnumberKlabelMonaco-6nowrapjjuhjh!h"hMh jj}j}jj
subeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jhhh!NhNubh;)}(hdAt the end of all :math:`N` histories, the second sample central moment
is found from the power sumsh](h/At the end of all }(hAt the end of all h j/hhh!NhNubh)}(h :math:`N`h]h/N}(hhh j8ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh j/ubh/I histories, the second sample central moment
is found from the power sums}(hI histories, the second sample central moment
is found from the power sumsh j/hhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jhhubj)}(hhh](h)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hequation-monaco-7uhh
h jQubj)}(h4 m_{2} = \frac{S_{2}}{N} - \ \frac{S_{1}^{2}}{N^{2}}h]h/4 m_{2} = \frac{S_{2}}{N} - \ \frac{S_{1}^{2}}{N^{2}}}(hhh j^ubah}(h]j]ah]h]h]h]docnamejnumberKlabelMonaco-7nowrapjjuhjh!h"hMh jQj}j}j]jTsubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jhhh!NhNubh;)}(hand then the tally average is computed as
:math:`\overline{x} = \frac{S_{1}}{N}` and the uncertainty in the tally
average is :math:`u = \sqrt{\frac{m_{2}}{N}}`.h](h/*and then the tally average is computed as
}(h*and then the tally average is computed as
h jyhhh!NhNubh)}(h&:math:`\overline{x} = \frac{S_{1}}{N}`h]h/\overline{x} = \frac{S_{1}}{N}}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jyubh/- and the uncertainty in the tally
average is }(h- and the uncertainty in the tally
average is h jyhhh!NhNubh)}(h":math:`u = \sqrt{\frac{m_{2}}{N}}`h]h/u = \sqrt{\frac{m_{2}}{N}}}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jyubh/.}(hjh jyhhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM%h jhhubh;)}(hXThe extended tally uses four accumulators – the first and second are the
same as the simple tally – with the third and fourth accumulators used
for finding the variance of the variance (VOV). These extra
accumulators, :math:`S_{3}` and :math:`S_{4}`, are calculated ash](h/The extended tally uses four accumulators – the first and second are the
same as the simple tally – with the third and fourth accumulators used
for finding the variance of the variance (VOV). These extra
accumulators, }(hThe extended tally uses four accumulators – the first and second are the
same as the simple tally – with the third and fourth accumulators used
for finding the variance of the variance (VOV). These extra
accumulators, h jhhh!NhNubh)}(h
:math:`S_{3}`h]h/S_{3}}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jubh/ and }(h and h jhhh!NhNubh)}(h
:math:`S_{4}`h]h/S_{4}}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jubh/, are calculated as}(h, are calculated ash jhhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM)h jhhubj)}(hhh](h)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hequation-monaco-8uhh
h jubj)}(h S_{3} = \ \sum_{i}^{}h_{i}^{3}h]h/ S_{3} = \ \sum_{i}^{}h_{i}^{3}}(hhh jubah}(h]jah]h]h]h]docnamejnumberKlabelMonaco-8nowrapjjuhjh!h"hM/h jj}j}jjsubh)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hequation-monaco-9uhh
h jubj)}(h S_{4} = \ \sum_{i}^{}h_{i}^{4}h]h/ S_{4} = \ \sum_{i}^{}h_{i}^{4}}(hhh j ubah}(h]j
ah]h]h]h]docnamejnumberK labelMonaco-9nowrapjjuhjh!h"hM4h jj}j}j
j subeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jhhh!NhNubh;)}(hAt the end of all :math:`N` histories, the tally average
:math:`\overline{x}\ `\ and uncertainty in the tally average :math:`u`
are found in the same way as a simple tally. For the VOV calculation,
the third and fourth sample central moments are found ash](h/At the end of all }(hAt the end of all h j) hhh!NhNubh)}(h :math:`N`h]h/N}(hhh j2 ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh j) ubh/ histories, the tally average
}(h histories, the tally average
h j) hhh!NhNubh)}(h:math:`\overline{x}\ `h]h/\overline{x}\ }(hhh jE ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh j) ubh/' and uncertainty in the tally average }(h'\ and uncertainty in the tally average h j) hhh!NhNubh)}(h :math:`u`h]h/u}(hhh jX ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh j) ubh/
are found in the same way as a simple tally. For the VOV calculation,
the third and fourth sample central moments are found as}(h
are found in the same way as a simple tally. For the VOV calculation,
the third and fourth sample central moments are found ash j) hhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM:h jhhubh;)}(hAt the end of all :math:`N` histories, the tally average
:math:`\overline{x}\ `\ and uncertainty in the tally average :math:`u`
are found in the same way as a simple tally. For the VOV calculation,
the third and fourth sample central moments are found ash](h/At the end of all }(hAt the end of all h jq hhh!NhNubh)}(h :math:`N`h]h/N}(hhh jz ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jq ubh/ histories, the tally average
}(h histories, the tally average
h jq hhh!NhNubh)}(h:math:`\overline{x}\ `h]h/\overline{x}\ }(hhh j ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jq ubh/' and uncertainty in the tally average }(h'\ and uncertainty in the tally average h jq hhh!NhNubh)}(h :math:`u`h]h/u}(hhh j ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jq ubh/
are found in the same way as a simple tally. For the VOV calculation,
the third and fourth sample central moments are found as}(h
are found in the same way as a simple tally. For the VOV calculation,
the third and fourth sample central moments are found ash jq hhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM?h jhhubj)}(hhh](h)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hequation-monaco-10uhh
h j ubj)}(hNm_{3} = \frac{S_{3}}{N} - \frac{3S_{1}S_{2}}{N^{2}} + \frac{2S_{1}^{3}}{N^{3}}h]h/Nm_{3} = \frac{S_{3}}{N} - \frac{3S_{1}S_{2}}{N^{2}} + \frac{2S_{1}^{3}}{N^{3}}}(hhh j ubah}(h]j ah]h]h]h]docnamejnumberK
label Monaco-10nowrapjjuhjh!h"hMEh j j}j}j j subeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jhhh!NhNubh)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hequation-monaco-11uhh
h jhhh!h"hNubj)}(hrm_{4} = \frac{S_{4}}{N} - \frac{4S_{1}S_{3}}{N^{2}} + \ \frac{6S_{1}^{2}S_{2}}{N^{3}} - \ \frac{3S_{1}^{4}}{N^{4}}h]h/rm_{4} = \frac{S_{4}}{N} - \frac{4S_{1}S_{3}}{N^{2}} + \ \frac{6S_{1}^{2}S_{2}}{N^{3}} - \ \frac{3S_{1}^{4}}{N^{4}}}(hhh j ubah}(h]j ah]h]h]h]docnamejnumberKlabel Monaco-11nowrapjjuhjh!h"hMJh jhhj}j}j j subh;)}(h[and then the VOV :cite:`pederson_confidence_1997` and figure-of-merit (FOM) are found usingh](h/and then the VOV }(hand then the VOV h j
hhh!NhNubj)}(hpederson_confidence_1997h]j)}(hj
h]h/[pederson_confidence_1997]}(hhh j
ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j
ubah}(h]id2ah]jah]h]h] refdomainjreftypej reftargetj
refwarnsupport_smartquotesuhjh!h"hMPh j
hhubh/* and figure-of-merit (FOM) are found using}(h* and figure-of-merit (FOM) are found usingh j
hhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMPh jhhubj)}(hhh](h)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hequation-monaco-12uhh
h j1
ubj)}(h<\mathrm{\text{VOV}} = \frac{m_{4} - \ m_{2}^{2}}{Nm_{2}^{2}}h]h/<\mathrm{\text{VOV}} = \frac{m_{4} - \ m_{2}^{2}}{Nm_{2}^{2}}}(hhh j>
ubah}(h]j=
ah]h]h]h]docnamejnumberKlabel Monaco-12nowrapjjuhjh!h"hMSh j1
j}j}j=
j4
subh)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hequation-monaco-13uhh
h j1
ubj)}(hO\mathrm{\text{FOM}} = \ \frac{1}{\left( \frac{u}{\overline{x}} \right)^{2} \ T}h]h/O\mathrm{\text{FOM}} = \ \frac{1}{\left( \frac{u}{\overline{x}} \right)^{2} \ T}}(hhh j]
ubah}(h]j\
ah]h]h]h]docnamejnumberK
label Monaco-13nowrapjjuhjh!h"hMXh j1
j}j}j\
jS
subeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jhhh!NhNubh;)}(h/where *T* is the calculation time (in minutes).h](h/where }(hwhere h jx
hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*T*h]h/T}(hhh j
ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jx
ubh/& is the calculation time (in minutes).}(h& is the calculation time (in minutes).h jx
hhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM]h jhhubh;)}(hExtended tallies are used for the total neutron flux, total photon flux
and any responses for the Monaco tallies. Simple tallies are used for
each group’s flux and each group’s contribution to a response.h]h/Extended tallies are used for the total neutron flux, total photon flux
and any responses for the Monaco tallies. Simple tallies are used for
each group’s flux and each group’s contribution to a response.}(hj
h j
hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM_h jhhubh;)}(hXDetailed, group-wise results for each tally are saved to separate files
at the end of each batch of particles. Users can view these files (in
the SCALE temporary directory) as the Monaco simulation progresses.
Summaries of the extended tallies appear in the final Monaco output
file.h]h/XDetailed, group-wise results for each tally are saved to separate files
at the end of each batch of particles. Users can view these files (in
the SCALE temporary directory) as the Monaco simulation progresses.
Summaries of the extended tallies appear in the final Monaco output
file.}(hj
h j
hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMch jhhubeh}(h]tally-statisticsah]h]tally statisticsah]h]uhh#h j0hhh!h"hKubh$)}(hhh](h))}(hStatistical testsh]h/Statistical tests}(hj
h j
hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h j
hhh!h"hMjubh;)}(hStatistical tests are performed on the extended tallies at the end of
each batch. Results for each batch are stored in files and the results
for the final batch are shown in the main output tally summary. The six
tests are:h]h/Statistical tests are performed on the extended tallies at the end of
each batch. Results for each batch are stored in files and the results
for the final batch are shown in the main output tally summary. The six
tests are:}(hj
h j
hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMlh j
hhubj)}(hhh]j)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]colwidthK
uhjh j
ubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]colwidthK
uhjh j
ubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]colwidthK
uhjh j
ubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]colwidthK
uhjh j
ubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]colwidthKuhjh j
ubj)}(hhh]j)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h**Quantity**h]j)}(hj)h]h/Quantity}(hhh j+ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j'ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMrh j$ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h**Test**h]j)}(hjIh]h/Test}(hhh jKubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jGubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMrh jDubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h**Goal**h]j)}(hjih]h/Goal}(hhh jkubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jgubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMrh jdubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h
**Within**h]j)}(hjh]h/Within}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMrh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j
ubj=)}(hhh](j)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h enumerated_list)}(hhh]h list_item)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]enumtypearabicprefixhsuffixjuhjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh]h;)}(hmeanh]h/mean}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMuh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh]h;)}(hrelative
slope of
linear fith]h/relative
slope of
linear fit}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMuh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h= 0.00h]h/= 0.00}(hjh j
ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMuh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h±0.10h]h/±0.10}(hj#h j!ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMuh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]j)}(hhh]j)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jAubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjjhjjstartKuhjh j>ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j;ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(hstandard
deviationh]h/standard
deviation}(hj_h j]ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMyh jZubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j;ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(hexponent of
power fith]h/exponent of
power fit}(hjvh jtubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMyh jqubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j;ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h= -0.50h]h/= -0.50}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMyh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j;ubj)}(hhh]j)}(hR^{2} > 0.99
h]h/R^{2} > 0.99
}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]docnamejnumberNlabelNnowrapjjuhjh!h"hMyh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j;ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]j)}(hhh]j)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjjhjjjSKuhjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh]h;)}(hrelative
uncertaintyh]h/relative
uncertainty}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM|h jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh]h;)}(hfinal valueh]h/final value}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM|h jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h< 0.05h]h/< 0.05}(hj
h j
ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM|h j
ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]j)}(hhh]j)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j8
ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjjhjjjSKuhjh j5
ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j2
ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(hrelative
VOVh]h/relative
VOV}(hjU
h jS
ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jP
ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j2
ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(hexponent of
power fith]h/exponent of
power fit}(hjl
h jj
ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jg
ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j2
ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h= -1.00h]h/= -1.00}(hj
h j
ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j~
ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j2
ubj)}(hhh]j)}(hR^{2} > 0.95
h]h/R^{2} > 0.95
}(hhh j
ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]docnamejnumberNlabelNnowrapjjuhjh!h"hMh j
ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j2
ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]j)}(hhh]j)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j
ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjjhjjjSKuhjh j
ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j
ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(hrelative
VOVh]h/relative
VOV}(hj
h j
ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j
ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j
ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(hfinal valueh]h/final value}(hj
h j
ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j
ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j
ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h< 0.10h]h/< 0.10}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j
ubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j
ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]j)}(hhh]j)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j.ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjjhjjjSKuhjh j+ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j(ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(hfigure-of-m
erith]h/figure-of-m
erit}(hjKh jIubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jFubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j(ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(hrelative
slope of
linear fith]h/relative
slope of
linear fit}(hjbh j`ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j]ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j(ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h= 0.00h]h/= 0.00}(hjyh jwubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jtubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j(ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h±0.10h]h/±0.10}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j(ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj<h j
ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]colsKuhjh j
ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jijjuhjh j
hhh!h"hNubh;)}(hXFor the tests that are fit to a function with respect to batch (1, 2, 4,
and 6), only the last half of the simulation is used. The basis for
these tests is that in a well-behaved Monte Carlo, the mean should not
increase or decrease as a function of the number of histories
(:math:`N`), the standard deviation should decrease with
:math:`\frac{1}{\sqrt{N}}`, the variance of the variance should decrease
with :math:`\frac{1}{N}` and the figure-of-merit should neitherh](h/XFor the tests that are fit to a function with respect to batch (1, 2, 4,
and 6), only the last half of the simulation is used. The basis for
these tests is that in a well-behaved Monte Carlo, the mean should not
increase or decrease as a function of the number of histories
(}(hXFor the tests that are fit to a function with respect to batch (1, 2, 4,
and 6), only the last half of the simulation is used. The basis for
these tests is that in a well-behaved Monte Carlo, the mean should not
increase or decrease as a function of the number of histories
(h jhhh!NhNubh)}(h :math:`N`h]h/N}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jubh//), the standard deviation should decrease with
}(h/), the standard deviation should decrease with
h jhhh!NhNubh)}(h:math:`\frac{1}{\sqrt{N}}`h]h/\frac{1}{\sqrt{N}}}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jubh/4, the variance of the variance should decrease
with }(h4, the variance of the variance should decrease
with h jhhh!NhNubh)}(h:math:`\frac{1}{N}`h]h/\frac{1}{N}}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jubh/' and the figure-of-merit should neither}(h' and the figure-of-merit should neitherh jhhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j
hhubh;)}(hincrease or decrease as a function of the number of histories
(proportional to time). For tests 2 and 4, the coefficient of
determination, :math:`R^{2}`, from a forced fit to a function with the
right exponent is used as the tally test.h](h/increase or decrease as a function of the number of histories
(proportional to time). For tests 2 and 4, the coefficient of
determination, }(hincrease or decrease as a function of the number of histories
(proportional to time). For tests 2 and 4, the coefficient of
determination, h jhhh!NhNubh)}(h
:math:`R^{2}`h]h/R^{2}}(hhh jubamh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jubh/T, from a forced fit to a function with the
right exponent is used as the tally test.}(hT, from a forced fit to a function with the
right exponent is used as the tally test.h jhhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j
hhubeh}(h]statistical-testsah]h]statistical testsah]h]uhh#h j0hhh!h"hMjubh$)}(hhh](h))}(hPoint detector talliesh]h/Point detector tallies}(hj2h j0hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h j-hhh!h"hMubh;)}(hXPoint detectors are a form of variance reduction in computing the flux
or response at a specific point. At the source emission site and at
every interaction in the particle’s history, an estimate is made of the
probability of the particle striking the position of the point detector.
For each point detector, Monaco tallies the uncollided and total flux
for each energy group, the total for all neutron groups, and the total
for all photon groups. Any number of optional dose-like responses can be
calculated as well.h]h/XPoint detectors are a form of variance reduction in computing the flux
or response at a specific point. At the source emission site and at
every interaction in the particle’s history, an estimate is made of the
probability of the particle striking the position of the point detector.
For each point detector, Monaco tallies the uncollided and total flux
for each energy group, the total for all neutron groups, and the total
for all photon groups. Any number of optional dose-like responses can be
calculated as well.}(hj@h j>hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j-hhubh$)}(hhh](h))}(h
Multigrouph]h/
Multigroup}(hjQh jOhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h jLhhh!h"hMubh;)}(hXAfter a source particle of group *g* is started, the distance *R*
between the source position and the detector position is calculated.
Along the line connecting the source and detector positions, the sum of
the distance *s\ j* through each region *j* multiplied by the total
cross section :math:`\Sigma_{j}^{g}`\ for that region is also
calculated. The contribution *c\ g* to the uncollided flux estimator is
then made to the tally for group *g*.h](h/!After a source particle of group }(h!After a source particle of group h j]hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*g*h]h/g}(hhh jfubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j]ubh/ is started, the distance }(h is started, the distance h j]hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*R*h]h/R}(hhh jyubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j]ubh/
between the source position and the detector position is calculated.
Along the line connecting the source and detector positions, the sum of
the distance }(h
between the source position and the detector position is calculated.
Along the line connecting the source and detector positions, the sum of
the distance h j]hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*s\ j*h]h/s j}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j]ubh/ through each region }(h through each region h j]hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*j*h]h/j}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j]ubh/' multiplied by the total
cross section }(h' multiplied by the total
cross section h j]hhh!NhNubh)}(h:math:`\Sigma_{j}^{g}`h]h/\Sigma_{j}^{g}}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh j]ubh/7 for that region is also
calculated. The contribution }(h7\ for that region is also
calculated. The contribution h j]hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*c\ g*h]h/c g}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j]ubh/F to the uncollided flux estimator is
then made to the tally for group }(hF to the uncollided flux estimator is
then made to the tally for group h j]hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*g*h]h/g}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j]ubh/.}(hjh j]hhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jLhhubh)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hequation-monaco-14uhh
h jLhhh!h"hNubj)}(hZc_{g} = \frac{1}{4\pi R^{2}}\mathrm{\exp}\left( - \sum_{j}^{}{s_{j}\Sigma_{j}^{g}} \right)h]h/Zc_{g} = \frac{1}{4\pi R^{2}}\mathrm{\exp}\left( - \sum_{j}^{}{s_{j}\Sigma_{j}^{g}} \right)}(hhh jubah}(h]jah]h]h]h]docnamejnumberKlabel Monaco-14nowrapjjuhjh!h"hMh jLhhj}j}jjsubeh}(h]
multigroupah]h]
multigroupah]h]uhh#h j-hhh!h"hMubh$)}(hhh](h))}(hContinuous Energyh]h/Continuous Energy}(hjh jhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h jhhh!h"hMubh;)}(hXqAfter a source particle with energy *E* is started, the distance *R*
between the source position and the detector position is calculated. For
each bin :math:`g` of the tally energy structure, a specific energy
:math:`E_{g}` is sampled uniformly within the bin. Along the line
connecting the source and detector positions, the sum of the distance
*s\ j* through each region *j* multiplied by the total cross section
:math:`\Sigma_{j}\left( E_{g} \right)` for that region. The contribution
*c\ g* to the uncollided flux estimator is then made to the tally for
group *g*. total cross section :math:`\Sigma_{j}\left( E \right)` :h](h/$After a source particle with energy }(h$After a source particle with energy h j(hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*E*h]h/E}(hhh j1ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j(ubh/ is started, the distance }(h is started, the distance h j(hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*R*h]h/R}(hhh jDubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j(ubh/S
between the source position and the detector position is calculated. For
each bin }(hS
between the source position and the detector position is calculated. For
each bin h j(hhh!NhNubh)}(h :math:`g`h]h/g}(hhh jWubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh j(ubh/2 of the tally energy structure, a specific energy
}(h2 of the tally energy structure, a specific energy
h j(hhh!NhNubh)}(h
:math:`E_{g}`h]h/E_{g}}(hhh jjubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh j(ubh/{ is sampled uniformly within the bin. Along the line
connecting the source and detector positions, the sum of the distance
}(h{ is sampled uniformly within the bin. Along the line
connecting the source and detector positions, the sum of the distance
h j(hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*s\ j*h]h/s j}(hhh j}ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j(ubh/ through each region }(h through each region h j(hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*j*h]h/j}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j(ubh/' multiplied by the total cross section
}(h' multiplied by the total cross section
h j(hhh!NhNubh)}(h&:math:`\Sigma_{j}\left( E_{g} \right)`h]h/\Sigma_{j}\left( E_{g} \right)}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh j(ubh/# for that region. The contribution
}(h# for that region. The contribution
h j(hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*c\ g*h]h/c g}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j(ubh/F to the uncollided flux estimator is then made to the tally for
group }(hF to the uncollided flux estimator is then made to the tally for
group h j(hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*g*h]h/g}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j(ubh/. total cross section }(h. total cross section h j(hhh!NhNubh)}(h":math:`\Sigma_{j}\left( E \right)`h]h/\Sigma_{j}\left( E \right)}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh j(ubh/ :}(h :h j(hhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jhhubh)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hequation-monaco-15uhh
h jhhh!h"hNubj)}(hfc_{g} = \frac{1}{4\pi R^{2}}\mathrm{\exp}\left( - \sum_{j}^{}{s_{j}\Sigma_{j}\left( E \right)} \right)h]h/fc_{g} = \frac{1}{4\pi R^{2}}\mathrm{\exp}\left( - \sum_{j}^{}{s_{j}\Sigma_{j}\left( E \right)} \right)}(hhh jubah}(h]jah]h]h]h]docnamejnumberKlabel Monaco-15nowrapjjuhjh!h"hMh jhhj}j}jjsubh;)}(hXOnly source particles contribute to the uncollided flux tally. At each
interaction point during the life of the particle, similar contributions
are made to each of the tallies. For each group *g′* that the particle
could scatter into and reach the detector location, a contribution is
made that also includes the probability to scatter from the current
direction towards the detector and having the energy change from group
*g* to group *g′.*h](h/Only source particles contribute to the uncollided flux tally. At each
interaction point during the life of the particle, similar contributions
are made to each of the tallies. For each group }(hOnly source particles contribute to the uncollided flux tally. At each
interaction point during the life of the particle, similar contributions
are made to each of the tallies. For each group h jhhh!NhNubhA)}(h*g′*h]h/g′}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jubh/ that the particle
could scatter into and reach the detector location, a contribution is
made that also includes the probability to scatter from the current
direction towards the detector and having the energy change from group
}(h that the particle
could scatter into and reach the detector location, a contribution is
made that also includes the probability to scatter from the current
direction towards the detector and having the energy change from group
h jhhh!NhNubhA)}(h*g*h]h/g}(hhh j0ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jubh/
to group }(h
to group h jhhh!NhNubhA)}(h*g′.*h]h/g′.}(hhh jCubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jhhubh;)}(hXThis type of tally is costly, since ray-tracing through the geometry
from the current particle position to the detector location is required
many times over the particle history. Point detectors should be located
in regions made of void material, so that contributions from
interactions arbitrarily close to the point detector cannot overwhelm
the total estimated flux (as
:math:`\frac{1}{4\pi R^{2} \rightarrow \infty}`).h](h/XuThis type of tally is costly, since ray-tracing through the geometry
from the current particle position to the detector location is required
many times over the particle history. Point detectors should be located
in regions made of void material, so that contributions from
interactions arbitrarily close to the point detector cannot overwhelm
the total estimated flux (as
}(hXuThis type of tally is costly, since ray-tracing through the geometry
from the current particle position to the detector location is required
many times over the particle history. Point detectors should be located
in regions made of void material, so that contributions from
interactions arbitrarily close to the point detector cannot overwhelm
the total estimated flux (as
h jWhhh!NhNubh)}(h/:math:`\frac{1}{4\pi R^{2} \rightarrow \infty}`h]h/'\frac{1}{4\pi R^{2} \rightarrow \infty}}(hhh j`ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jWubh/).}(h).h jWhhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jhhubh;)}(hXCare must be taken in using point detectors in deep penetration problems
to ensure that the entire phase space that could contribute has been
well sampled—so that the point detector is not underestimating the flux
by leaving out areas far from the source but close to the point detector
position. One way to check this is by examining how the tally average
and uncertainty change with each batch of particles used in the
simulation. Large fluctuations in either quantity could indicate that
the phase space is not being sampled well.h]h/XCare must be taken in using point detectors in deep penetration problems
to ensure that the entire phase space that could contribute has been
well sampled—so that the point detector is not underestimating the flux
by leaving out areas far from the source but close to the point detector
position. One way to check this is by examining how the tally average
and uncertainty change with each batch of particles used in the
simulation. Large fluctuations in either quantity could indicate that
the phase space is not being sampled well.}(hj{h jyhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jhhubeh}(h]continuous-energyah]h]continuous energyah]h]uhh#h j-hhh!h"hMubeh}(h]point-detector-talliesah]h]h]point detector talliesah]uhh#h j0hhh!h"hMjKubh$)}(hhh](h))}(hRegion talliesh]h/Region tallies}(hjh jhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h jhhh!h"hMubh;)}(hXRegion tallies are used for calculating the flux and/or responses over
one of the regions listed in the SGGP geometry. Both the track-length
estimate of the flux and the collision density estimate of the flux are
calculated—and for each, the region tally contains simple tallies for
finding flux in each group, the total neutron flux, and the total photon
flux. For each of the optional response functions, the region tally also
contains simple tallies for each group and the total response.h]h/XRegion tallies are used for calculating the flux and/or responses over
one of the regions listed in the SGGP geometry. Both the track-length
estimate of the flux and the collision density estimate of the flux are
calculated—and for each, the region tally contains simple tallies for
finding flux in each group, the total neutron flux, and the total photon
flux. For each of the optional response functions, the region tally also
contains simple tallies for each group and the total response.}(hjh jhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jhhubh;)}(hXFor the track-length estimate of flux, each time a particle of energy
:math:`E` moves through the region of interest, a contribution of
:math:`l` (the length of the step in the region) is made to the history
score for the simple tally for flux for tally group \ *g*. The same
contribution is made for the history score for the simple tally for
total particle flux, neutron or photon, depending on the particle type.h](h/FFor the track-length estimate of flux, each time a particle of energy
}(hFFor the track-length estimate of flux, each time a particle of energy
h jhhh!NhNubh)}(h :math:`E`h]h/E}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jubh/9 moves through the region of interest, a contribution of
}(h9 moves through the region of interest, a contribution of
h jhhh!NhNubh)}(h :math:`l`h]h/l}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jubh/v (the length of the step in the region) is made to the history
score for the simple tally for flux for tally group }(hv (the length of the step in the region) is made to the history
score for the simple tally for flux for tally group \ h jhhh!NhNubhA)}(h*g*h]h/g}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jubh/. The same
contribution is made for the history score for the simple tally for
total particle flux, neutron or photon, depending on the particle type.}(h. The same
contribution is made for the history score for the simple tally for
total particle flux, neutron or photon, depending on the particle type.h jhhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jhhubh;)}(hXaIf any optional response functions were requested with the tally, then
the contribution of :math:`\text{lf}\left( E \right)`\ is made for the
response group, where :math:`f\left( E \right)` is the response function
value for energy :math:`E`. The history score for the total response
function is also incremented using :math:`\text{lf}\left( E \right)`.h](h/[If any optional response functions were requested with the tally, then
the contribution of }(h[If any optional response functions were requested with the tally, then
the contribution of h jhhh!NhNubh)}(h!:math:`\text{lf}\left( E \right)`h]h/\text{lf}\left( E \right)}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jubh/( is made for the
response group, where }(h(\ is made for the
response group, where h jhhh!NhNubh)}(h:math:`f\left( E \right)`h]h/f\left( E \right)}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jubh/+ is the response function
value for energy }(h+ is the response function
value for energy h jhhh!NhNubh)}(h :math:`E`h]h/E}(hhh j-ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jubh/N. The history score for the total response
function is also incremented using }(hN. The history score for the total response
function is also incremented using h jhhh!NhNubh)}(h!:math:`\text{lf}\left( E \right)`h]h/\text{lf}\left( E \right)}(hhh j@ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jubh/.}(hjh jhhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jhhubh;)}(hX@At the end of all of the histories, the averages and uncertainties of
all of the simple tallies for fluxes are found for every group and each
total. These results then represent the average track-length over the
region. To determine flux, these results are divided by the volume of
the region. If the volume :math:`V` of the region was not given in the
geometry input nor calculated by Monaco, then the tally results will be
just the average track lengths and their uncertainties. A reminder
message is written to the tally detail file if the volume of the region
was not set.h](h/X4At the end of all of the histories, the averages and uncertainties of
all of the simple tallies for fluxes are found for every group and each
total. These results then represent the average track-length over the
region. To determine flux, these results are divided by the volume of
the region. If the volume }(hX4At the end of all of the histories, the averages and uncertainties of
all of the simple tallies for fluxes are found for every group and each
total. These results then represent the average track-length over the
region. To determine flux, these results are divided by the volume of
the region. If the volume h jXhhh!NhNubh)}(h :math:`V`h]h/V}(hhh jaubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jXubh/X of the region was not given in the
geometry input nor calculated by Monaco, then the tally results will be
just the average track lengths and their uncertainties. A reminder
message is written to the tally detail file if the volume of the region
was not set.}(hX of the region was not given in the
geometry input nor calculated by Monaco, then the tally results will be
just the average track lengths and their uncertainties. A reminder
message is written to the tally detail file if the volume of the region
was not set.h jXhhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jhhubh;)}(hXFor the collision density estimate of the flux, each time a particle of
energy :math:`E` has a collision in the region of interest, a
contribution of :math:`\frac{1}{\Sigma}` (the reciprocal of the total
macroscopic cross section) is made to the history scores for the simple
tally for flux for tally energy group *g* and for the total particle
flux. At the end of the simulation, the averages and uncertainties of
all of the simple tallies for every group flux and total flux are found
and then divided by the region volume, if available.h](h/OFor the collision density estimate of the flux, each time a particle of
energy }(hOFor the collision density estimate of the flux, each time a particle of
energy h jzhhh!NhNubh)}(h :math:`E`h]h/E}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jzubh/> has a collision in the region of interest, a
contribution of }(h> has a collision in the region of interest, a
contribution of h jzhhh!NhNubh)}(h:math:`\frac{1}{\Sigma}`h]h/\frac{1}{\Sigma}}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jzubh/ (the reciprocal of the total
macroscopic cross section) is made to the history scores for the simple
tally for flux for tally energy group }(h (the reciprocal of the total
macroscopic cross section) is made to the history scores for the simple
tally for flux for tally energy group h jzhhh!NhNubhA)}(h*g*h]h/g}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jzubh/ and for the total particle
flux. At the end of the simulation, the averages and uncertainties of
all of the simple tallies for every group flux and total flux are found
and then divided by the region volume, if available.}(h and for the total particle
flux. At the end of the simulation, the averages and uncertainties of
all of the simple tallies for every group flux and total flux are found
and then divided by the region volume, if available.h jzhhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jhhubh;)}(hXSimilar to the point detector tallies, region tallies produce a file
listing the tally average and uncertainty at the end of each batch of
source particles (a \*.chart file). This file can be plotted using the
simple 2-D plotter (ChartPlot) to observe the tally convergence
behavior.h]h/XSimilar to the point detector tallies, region tallies produce a file
listing the tally average and uncertainty at the end of each batch of
source particles (a *.chart file). This file can be plotted using the
simple 2-D plotter (ChartPlot) to observe the tally convergence
behavior.}(hXSimilar to the point detector tallies, region tallies produce a file
listing the tally average and uncertainty at the end of each batch of
source particles (a \*.chart file). This file can be plotted using the
simple 2-D plotter (ChartPlot) to observe the tally convergence
behavior.h jhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jhhubeh}(h]region-talliesah]h]h]region talliesah]uhh#h j0hhh!h"hMjKubh$)}(hhh](h))}(hMesh talliesh]h/Mesh tallies}(hjh jhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h jhhh!h"hMubh;)}(hXFor a D Cartesian mesh or a cylindrical mesh (independent of the SGGP
geometry), Monaco can calculate the track-length estimate of the flux.
Since the number of cells (voxels) in a mesh can become quite large, the
mesh tallies are not updated at the end of each history but are instead
updated at the end of each batch of particles. This prevents the mesh
tally accumulation from taking too much time but means that the estimate
of the statistical uncertainty is slightly low.h]h/XFor a D Cartesian mesh or a cylindrical mesh (independent of the SGGP
geometry), Monaco can calculate the track-length estimate of the flux.
Since the number of cells (voxels) in a mesh can become quite large, the
mesh tallies are not updated at the end of each history but are instead
updated at the end of each batch of particles. This prevents the mesh
tally accumulation from taking too much time but means that the estimate
of the statistical uncertainty is slightly low.}(hjh jhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jhhubh;)}(hOLike the other tallies, mesh tallies can calculate optional response
functions.h]h/OLike the other tallies, mesh tallies can calculate optional response
functions.}(hjh jhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jhhubh;)}(hX+Since a mesh tally consists of many actual tallies, the statistical
tests are a bit more complex than for the region and point detector
tallies. Several statistical quantities and tests are used in Monaco
similar to those in several recent studies :cite:`kiedrowski_statistical_2011,kiedrowski_evaluating_2011` which
look at a distribution of relative variances over the mesh tally. In
Monaco, the basis of the statistical tests center on the distribution of
relative uncertainties and its mean, :math:`\overline{r}`, of the voxels
(:math:`V`) with score.h](h/Since a mesh tally consists of many actual tallies, the statistical
tests are a bit more complex than for the region and point detector
tallies. Several statistical quantities and tests are used in Monaco
similar to those in several recent studies }(hSince a mesh tally consists of many actual tallies, the statistical
tests are a bit more complex than for the region and point detector
tallies. Several statistical quantities and tests are used in Monaco
similar to those in several recent studies h jhhh!NhNubj)}(hkiedrowski_statistical_2011h]j)}(hjh]h/[kiedrowski_statistical_2011]}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubah}(h]id3ah]jah]h]h] refdomainjreftypej reftargetjrefwarnsupport_smartquotesuhjh!h"hM h jhhubj)}(hkiedrowski_evaluating_2011h]j)}(hj.h]h/[kiedrowski_evaluating_2011]}(hhh j0ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j,ubah}(h]id4ah]jah]h]h] refdomainjreftypej reftargetj.refwarnsupport_smartquotesuhjh!h"hM h jhhubh/ which
look at a distribution of relative variances over the mesh tally. In
Monaco, the basis of the statistical tests center on the distribution of
relative uncertainties and its mean, }(h which
look at a distribution of relative variances over the mesh tally. In
Monaco, the basis of the statistical tests center on the distribution of
relative uncertainties and its mean, h jhhh!NhNubh)}(h:math:`\overline{r}`h]h/\overline{r}}(hhh jNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jubh/, of the voxels
(}(h, of the voxels
(h jhhh!NhNubh)}(h :math:`V`h]h/V}(hhh jaubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jubh/
) with score.}(h
) with score.h jhhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM h jhhubh)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hequation-monaco-16uhh
h jhhh!h"hNubj)}(h)\overline{r} = \frac{1}{V}\sum_{}^{}R_{i}h]h/)\overline{r} = \frac{1}{V}\sum_{}^{}R_{i}}(hhh jubah}(h]jah]h]h]h]docnamejnumberKlabel Monaco-16nowrapjjuhjh!h"hM*h jhhj}j}jjzsubh;)}(hXwhere :math:`R_{i}` is the relative uncertainty of the flux or dose in
voxel :math:`i`. If every voxel has been sampled well and its relative
uncertainty :math:`R_{i} \propto \frac{1}{\sqrt{N}}`, then the mean
relative uncertainty of the voxels should also behave as
:math:`\frac{1}{\sqrt{N}}`. The variance of the mean relative
uncertainty can be calculated and a figure of merit (FOM) for the mesh
tally can be constructed usingh](h/where }(hwhere h jhhh!NhNubh)}(h
:math:`R_{i}`h]h/R_{i}}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jubh/: is the relative uncertainty of the flux or dose in
voxel }(h: is the relative uncertainty of the flux or dose in
voxel h jhhh!NhNubh)}(h :math:`i`h]h/i}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jubh/D. If every voxel has been sampled well and its relative
uncertainty }(hD. If every voxel has been sampled well and its relative
uncertainty h jhhh!NhNubh)}(h(:math:`R_{i} \propto \frac{1}{\sqrt{N}}`h]h/ R_{i} \propto \frac{1}{\sqrt{N}}}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jubh/I, then the mean
relative uncertainty of the voxels should also behave as
}(hI, then the mean
relative uncertainty of the voxels should also behave as
h jhhh!NhNubh)}(h:math:`\frac{1}{\sqrt{N}}`h]h/\frac{1}{\sqrt{N}}}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jubh/. The variance of the mean relative
uncertainty can be calculated and a figure of merit (FOM) for the mesh
tally can be constructed using}(h. The variance of the mean relative
uncertainty can be calculated and a figure of merit (FOM) for the mesh
tally can be constructed usingh jhhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM0h jhhubh)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hequation-monaco-17uhh
h jhhh!h"hNubj)}(h#FOM = \frac{1}{{\overline{r}}^{2}T}h]h/#FOM = \frac{1}{{\overline{r}}^{2}T}}(hhh jubah}(h]jah]h]h]h]docnamejnumberKlabel Monaco-17nowrapjjuhjh!h"hM9h jhhj}j}jjsubh;)}(hXwith the time\ :math:`\text{\ T}` in minutes. The four tests measure
over the simulation: 1) if :math:`\zeta`, the fraction of voxels with
non-zero score, is constant; 2) if the mean relative uncertainty is
decreasing as :math:`\frac{1}{\sqrt{N}}` (as measured by the coefficient
of determination, :math:`R^{2}`, of a fit to a curve with power of
-0.5); 3) if the variance of the mean relative uncertainty is decreasing
with :math:`\frac{1}{N}`; and 4) if the FOM is constant.h](h/with the time }(hwith the time\ h jhhh!NhNubh)}(h:math:`\text{\ T}`h]h/
\text{\ T}}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jubh/? in minutes. The four tests measure
over the simulation: 1) if }(h? in minutes. The four tests measure
over the simulation: 1) if h jhhh!NhNubh)}(h
:math:`\zeta`h]h/\zeta}(hhh j/ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jubh/p, the fraction of voxels with
non-zero score, is constant; 2) if the mean relative uncertainty is
decreasing as }(hp, the fraction of voxels with
non-zero score, is constant; 2) if the mean relative uncertainty is
decreasing as h jhhh!NhNubh)}(h:math:`\frac{1}{\sqrt{N}}`h]h/\frac{1}{\sqrt{N}}}(hhh jBubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jubh/3 (as measured by the coefficient
of determination, }(h3 (as measured by the coefficient
of determination, h jhhh!NhNubh)}(h
:math:`R^{2}`h]h/R^{2}}(hhh jUubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jubh/r, of a fit to a curve with power of
-0.5); 3) if the variance of the mean relative uncertainty is decreasing
with }(hr, of a fit to a curve with power of
-0.5); 3) if the variance of the mean relative uncertainty is decreasing
with h jhhh!NhNubh)}(h:math:`\frac{1}{N}`h]h/\frac{1}{N}}(hhh jhubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jubh/ ; and 4) if the FOM is constant.}(h ; and 4) if the FOM is constant.h jhhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM?h jhhubj)}(hhh]j)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]colwidthKuhjh jubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]colwidthK 0.99
h]h/R^{2} > 0.99
}(hhh j7ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]docnamejnumberNlabelNnowrapjjuhjh!h"hMLh j4ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j0ubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]j)}(hhh]j)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j[ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjjhjjjSKuhjh jXubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jUubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h variance of :math:`\overline{r}`h](h/variance of }(hvariance of h jvubh)}(h:math:`\overline{r}`h]h/\overline{r}}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jvubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMNh jsubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jUubj)}(hhh]h;)}(hexponent of power fith]h/exponent of power fit}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMNh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jUubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h= -1.00h]h/= -1.00}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMNh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jUubj)}(hhh]j)}(hR^{2} > 0.95
h]h/R^{2} > 0.95
}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]docnamejnumberNlabelNnowrapjjuhjh!h"hMNh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jUubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j0ubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]j)}(hhh]j)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjjhjjjSKuhjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh]h;)}(hfigure-of-merith]h/figure-of-merit}(hjh j ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMPh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh]h;)}(hexponent of power fith]h/exponent of power fit}(hj"h j ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMPh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h= 0.00h]h/= 0.00}(hj9h j7ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMPh j4ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h±0.10h]h/±0.10}(hjPh jNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMPh jKubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j0ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj<h jubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]colsKuhjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jijjuhjh jhhh!h"hNubh;)}(hXFor non-uniform meshes (especially cylindrical), these tests may not be
the best measure of performance since different size voxels will have a
wider variety of relative uncertainties. The user is also cautioned that
if there are individual voxels within the mesh tally that have relative
uncertainties that are not decreasing as :math:`\frac{1}{\sqrt{N}}`,
then the mesh tally statistical tests will not be meaningful. It is
ultimately up to the user to decide if the mesh tally is performing well
(is the goal of the mesh tally just to calculate dose, not flux?; are
all spatial areas of the mesh tally equally important?; are all
magnitudes of the flux or response values equally important?; etc.)h](h/XJFor non-uniform meshes (especially cylindrical), these tests may not be
the best measure of performance since different size voxels will have a
wider variety of relative uncertainties. The user is also cautioned that
if there are individual voxels within the mesh tally that have relative
uncertainties that are not decreasing as }(hXJFor non-uniform meshes (especially cylindrical), these tests may not be
the best measure of performance since different size voxels will have a
wider variety of relative uncertainties. The user is also cautioned that
if there are individual voxels within the mesh tally that have relative
uncertainties that are not decreasing as h j{hhh!NhNubh)}(h:math:`\frac{1}{\sqrt{N}}`h]h/\frac{1}{\sqrt{N}}}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh j{ubh/XX,
then the mesh tally statistical tests will not be meaningful. It is
ultimately up to the user to decide if the mesh tally is performing well
(is the goal of the mesh tally just to calculate dose, not flux?; are
all spatial areas of the mesh tally equally important?; are all
magnitudes of the flux or response values equally important?; etc.)}(hXX,
then the mesh tally statistical tests will not be meaningful. It is
ultimately up to the user to decide if the mesh tally is performing well
(is the goal of the mesh tally just to calculate dose, not flux?; are
all spatial areas of the mesh tally equally important?; are all
magnitudes of the flux or response values equally important?; etc.)h j{hhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMSh jhhubh;)}(hXMesh tallies can be viewed with the Mesh File Viewer, a Java utility
that can be run from GeeWiz (on PC systems) or can be run separately (on
any system). The Mesh File Viewer will show the flux for each group, the
total flux for each type of particle and the optional responses.
Uncertainties and relative uncertainties can also be shown for mesh
tallies using the Mesh File Viewer. For more information on the Mesh
File Viewer, see its on-line documentation.h]h/XMesh tallies can be viewed with the Mesh File Viewer, a Java utility
that can be run from GeeWiz (on PC systems) or can be run separately (on
any system). The Mesh File Viewer will show the flux for each group, the
total flux for each type of particle and the optional responses.
Uncertainties and relative uncertainties can also be shown for mesh
tallies using the Mesh File Viewer. For more information on the Mesh
File Viewer, see its on-line documentation.}(hjh jhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM^h jhhubeh}(h]mesh-talliesah]h]h]mesh talliesah]uhh#h j0hhh!h"hMjKubeh}(h]talliesah]h]talliesah]h]uhh#h hhhh!h"hKubh$)}(hhh](h))}(hContinuous Energy Transporth]h/Continuous Energy Transport}(hjh jhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h jhhh!h"hMgubh;)}(hXUsing multigroup data in Monte Carlo transport calculations is generally
sufficient for most problems (both shielding and criticality). Many of
the reaction cross sections vary slowly with energy, so energy “groups”
can be made with one set of properties for the group. Multigroup
treatments can further simplify radiation transport by combining the
different types of reactions that can occur into a simple scattering
matrix – particles then have certain probabilities to scatter from their
current energy group to another energy group. If the user is not
interested in knowing which specific type of interaction happened at
each collision, this simplification can increase calculation efficiency.h]h/XUsing multigroup data in Monte Carlo transport calculations is generally
sufficient for most problems (both shielding and criticality). Many of
the reaction cross sections vary slowly with energy, so energy “groups”
can be made with one set of properties for the group. Multigroup
treatments can further simplify radiation transport by combining the
different types of reactions that can occur into a simple scattering
matrix – particles then have certain probabilities to scatter from their
current energy group to another energy group. If the user is not
interested in knowing which specific type of interaction happened at
each collision, this simplification can increase calculation efficiency.}(hjh jhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMih jhhubh;)}(hX;One major drawback of the multigroup approach is in representing discrete gammas,
such as the decay radiation from common isotopic sources. Consider a simple shielding
simulation using cobalt-60. This isotope gives off two high-energy gamma rays when it decays
(1173230 eV with intensity 99.85% and 1332490 eV with intensity 99.9826%). In the SCALE multigroup
calculations, a cobalt-60 source spectrum is represented by a broad pdf, controlled by the group structure.
This is shown in :numref:`fig8-1`. for the fine 47-group structure and the broad 19-group structure.h](h/XOne major drawback of the multigroup approach is in representing discrete gammas,
such as the decay radiation from common isotopic sources. Consider a simple shielding
simulation using cobalt-60. This isotope gives off two high-energy gamma rays when it decays
(1173230 eV with intensity 99.85% and 1332490 eV with intensity 99.9826%). In the SCALE multigroup
calculations, a cobalt-60 source spectrum is represented by a broad pdf, controlled by the group structure.
This is shown in }(hXOne major drawback of the multigroup approach is in representing discrete gammas,
such as the decay radiation from common isotopic sources. Consider a simple shielding
simulation using cobalt-60. This isotope gives off two high-energy gamma rays when it decays
(1173230 eV with intensity 99.85% and 1332490 eV with intensity 99.9826%). In the SCALE multigroup
calculations, a cobalt-60 source spectrum is represented by a broad pdf, controlled by the group structure.
This is shown in h jhhh!NhNubj)}(h:numref:`fig8-1`h]j
)}(hjh]h/fig8-1}(hhh jubah}(h]h](jstd
std-numrefeh]h]h]uhjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]refdocj refdomainjreftypenumrefrefexplicitrefwarnj*fig8-1uhjh!h"hMth jubh/C. for the fine 47-group structure and the broad 19-group structure.}(hC. for the fine 47-group structure and the broad 19-group structure.h jhhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMth jhhubh)}(h.. _fig8-1:h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hfig8-1uhh
hM{h jhhh!h"ubh figure)}(hhh](h image)}(h|.. figure:: figs/Monaco/Picture1.png
:width: 400
:align: center
The multigroup representation of a cobalt-60 source.
h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]width400urifigs/Monaco/Picture1.png
candidates}*j-suhjh jh!h"hMubh caption)}(h4The multigroup representation of a cobalt-60 source.h]h/4The multigroup representation of a cobalt-60 source.}(hj5h j3ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj1h!h"hMh jubeh}(h](id21jeh]h]fig8-1ah]h]jicenteruhjhMh jhhh!h"j}jFjsj}jjsubh;)}(hXtNote that in both group structures, 1.33 MeV is a group boundary, so the
1332490 eV line is represented by group that covers higher energies. The
cross section for that group is lower than the cross section for the
specific line, so multigroup transport calculations will tend to
overestimate the number of photons penetrating a shield, which will
overestimate dose rates.h]h/XtNote that in both group structures, 1.33 MeV is a group boundary, so the
1332490 eV line is represented by group that covers higher energies. The
cross section for that group is lower than the cross section for the
specific line, so multigroup transport calculations will tend to
overestimate the number of photons penetrating a shield, which will
overestimate dose rates.}(hjNh jLhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jhhubh;)}(hXUsing CE and the two multigroup libraries, the total cross sections for the cobalt lines are listed in :numref:`tab8-2`.
:numref:`fig8-2`. shows the total cross section of photons in tungsten, in both CE and the two SCALE multigroup structures.
On the whole, the multigroup data represents the CE data well. :numref:`fig8-3`. shows the same cross section information
near the two cobalt lines, which shows how the multigroup cross sections average over quite large energy ranges.h](h/gUsing CE and the two multigroup libraries, the total cross sections for the cobalt lines are listed in }(hgUsing CE and the two multigroup libraries, the total cross sections for the cobalt lines are listed in h jZhhh!NhNubj)}(h:numref:`tab8-2`h]j
)}(hjeh]h/tab8-2}(hhh jgubah}(h]h](jstd
std-numrefeh]h]h]uhjh jcubah}(h]h]h]h]h]refdocj refdomainjqreftypenumrefrefexplicitrefwarnj*tab8-2uhjh!h"hMh jZubh/.
}(h.
h jZhhh!NhNubj)}(h:numref:`fig8-2`h]j
)}(hjh]h/fig8-2}(hhh jubah}(h]h](jstd
std-numrefeh]h]h]uhjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]refdocj refdomainjreftypenumrefrefexplicitrefwarnj*fig8-2uhjh!h"hMh jZubh/. shows the total cross section of photons in tungsten, in both CE and the two SCALE multigroup structures.
On the whole, the multigroup data represents the CE data well. }(h. shows the total cross section of photons in tungsten, in both CE and the two SCALE multigroup structures.
On the whole, the multigroup data represents the CE data well. h jZhhh!NhNubj)}(h:numref:`fig8-3`h]j
)}(hjh]h/fig8-3}(hhh jubah}(h]h](jstd
std-numrefeh]h]h]uhjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]refdocj refdomainjreftypenumrefrefexplicitrefwarnj*fig8-3uhjh!h"hMh jZubh/. shows the same cross section information
near the two cobalt lines, which shows how the multigroup cross sections average over quite large energy ranges.}(h. shows the same cross section information
near the two cobalt lines, which shows how the multigroup cross sections average over quite large energy ranges.h jZhhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jhhubh)}(h.. _tab8-2:h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]htab8-2uhh
hMh jhhh!h"ubj)}(hhh](h))}(h2Total macroscopic cross section in tungsten (/cm).h]h/2Total macroscopic cross section in tungsten (/cm).}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h!h"hMh jubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]colwidthK
uhjh jubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]colwidthKuhjh jubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]colwidthKuhjh jubj)}(hhh]j)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h
1173230 eVh]h/
1173230 eV}(hj)h j'ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j$ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h
1332490 eVh]h/
1332490 eV}(hj@h j>ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j;ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj=)}(hhh](j)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(hSCALE CEh]h/SCALE CE}(hjih jgubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jdubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jaubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h1.03353h]h/1.03353}(hjh j~ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j{ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jaubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h0.94864h]h/0.94864}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jaubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j^ubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(hSCALE 47h]h/SCALE 47}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h1.09066h]h/1.09066}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h0.92743h]h/0.92743}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j^ubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(hSCALE 19h]h/SCALE 19}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h1.05167h]h/1.05167}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h0.89289h]h/0.89289}(hj3h j1ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j.ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j^ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj<h jubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]colsKuhjh jubeh}(h](id22jeh]h]tab8-2ah]h]jicenteruhjh jhhh!h"hNj}j]jsj}jjsubh;)}(hThe small differences in cross section can make large differences in the
transport. Consider just 5 cm of tungsten. Using the cross sections in
:numref:`tab8-2`, the attenuation (:math:`e^{- \mu x}`) of either line can
vary by 30%.h](h/The small differences in cross section can make large differences in the
transport. Consider just 5 cm of tungsten. Using the cross sections in
}(hThe small differences in cross section can make large differences in the
transport. Consider just 5 cm of tungsten. Using the cross sections in
h jchhh!NhNubj)}(h:numref:`tab8-2`h]j
)}(hjnh]h/tab8-2}(hhh jpubah}(h]h](jstd
std-numrefeh]h]h]uhjh jlubah}(h]h]h]h]h]refdocj refdomainjzreftypenumrefrefexplicitrefwarnj*tab8-2uhjh!h"hMh jcubh/, the attenuation (}(h, the attenuation (h jchhh!NhNubh)}(h:math:`e^{- \mu x}`h]h/e^{- \mu x}}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jcubh/!) of either line can
vary by 30%.}(h!) of either line can
vary by 30%.h jchhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jhhubh;)}(hX In addition to source representation problems, multigroup transport is
not adequate for applications where line spectra are measured. Because
of the group structure, tally results will be averaged out within a
group. With the fixed boundaries, specific lines in the tallies will not
be able to be seen. For examples, in the 19-group library, there is no
group around the 511 keV annihilation gammas – they are averaged in with
other photons from 400 to 600 keV. No multigroup structure could contain
thin groups around every line of interest.h]h/X In addition to source representation problems, multigroup transport is
not adequate for applications where line spectra are measured. Because
of the group structure, tally results will be averaged out within a
group. With the fixed boundaries, specific lines in the tallies will not
be able to be seen. For examples, in the 19-group library, there is no
group around the 511 keV annihilation gammas – they are averaged in with
other photons from 400 to 600 keV. No multigroup structure could contain
thin groups around every line of interest.}(hjh jhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jhhubh)}(h.. _fig8-2:h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hfig8-2uhh
hMh jhhh!h"ubj)}(hhh](j)}(h.. figure:: figs/Monaco/8-2.png
:width: 500
:align: center
Photon total cross section in tungsten. The energies of the cobalt-60 are displayed as lines at 1173230 and 1332490 eV.
h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]width500urifigs/Monaco/8-2.pngj.}j0jsuhjh jh!h"hMubj2)}(hxPhoton total cross section in tungsten. The energies of the cobalt-60 are displayed as lines at 1173230 and 1332490 eV.h]h/xPhoton total cross section in tungsten. The energies of the cobalt-60 are displayed as lines at 1173230 and 1332490 eV.}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj1h!h"hMh jubeh}(h](id23jeh]h]fig8-2ah]h]jicenteruhjhMh jhhh!h"j}jjsj}jjsubh)}(h.. _fig8-3:h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hfig8-3uhh
hMh jhhh!h"ubj)}(hhh](j)}(h.. figure:: figs/Monaco/8-3.png
:width: 500
:align: center
Photon total cross section in tungsten, near the cobalt lines. The energies of the cobalt-60 are displayed as lines at 1173230 and 1332490 eV.
h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]width500urifigs/Monaco/8-3.pngj.}j0j suhjh jh!h"hMubj2)}(hPhoton total cross section in tungsten, near the cobalt lines. The energies of the cobalt-60 are displayed as lines at 1173230 and 1332490 eV.h]h/Photon total cross section in tungsten, near the cobalt lines. The energies of the cobalt-60 are displayed as lines at 1173230 and 1332490 eV.}(hj
h jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj1h!h"hMh jubeh}(h](id24jeh]h]fig8-3ah]h]jicenteruhjhMh jhhh!h"j}jjsj}jjsubh;)}(hX;A sample problem involving a cobalt source and a slab of tungsten will
compare the use of continuous-energy transport to multigroup transport,
to demonstrate the large difference in results for single-line sources.
For distributions, differences between multigroup and continuous-energy
may not be very significant.h]h/X;A sample problem involving a cobalt source and a slab of tungsten will
compare the use of continuous-energy transport to multigroup transport,
to demonstrate the large difference in results for single-line sources.
For distributions, differences between multigroup and continuous-energy
may not be very significant.}(hj&h j$hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jhhubeh}(h]continuous-energy-transportah]h]continuous energy transportah]h]uhh#h hhhh!h"hMgubeh}(h]monaco-capabilitiesah]h]monaco capabilitiesah]h]uhh#h h%hhh!h"hK;ubh$)}(hhh](h))}(hMonaco Input Filesh]h/Monaco Input Files}(hjGh jEhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h jBhhh!h"hMubh;)}(hXThe input file for Monaco consists of two lines of text (“=monaco”
command line and one for the problem title) and then several blocks,
with each block starting with “read xxxx” and ending with “end xxxx”.
There are three blocks that are required and seven blocks that are
optional. The cross section and geometry blocks must be listed first and
in the specified order. Other blocks may be listed in any order.h]h/XThe input file for Monaco consists of two lines of text (“=monaco”
command line and one for the problem title) and then several blocks,
with each block starting with “read xxxx” and ending with “end xxxx”.
There are three blocks that are required and seven blocks that are
optional. The cross section and geometry blocks must be listed first and
in the specified order. Other blocks may be listed in any order.}(hjUh jShhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jBhhubh;)}(hBlocks (must be in this order):h]h/Blocks (must be in this order):}(hjch jahhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jBhhubh bullet_list)}(hhh](j)}(h\Cross Sections – (required) lists the cross-section file and the mixing table information
h]h;)}(h[Cross Sections – (required) lists the cross-section file and the mixing table informationh]h/[Cross Sections – (required) lists the cross-section file and the mixing table information}(hjzh jxubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jtubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jqhhh!h"hNubj)}(h;Geometry – (required) SCALE general geometry description
h]h;)}(h:Geometry – (required) SCALE general geometry descriptionh]h/:Geometry – (required) SCALE general geometry description}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jqhhh!h"hNubj)}(h>Array – optional addition to the above geometry description
h]h;)}(h=Array – optional addition to the above geometry descriptionh]h/=Array – optional addition to the above geometry description}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jqhhh!h"hNubj)}(h=Volume – optional calculation or listing of region volumes
h]h;)}(h$ubj=)}(hhh]j)}(hhh]j)}(hhh]j)}(h!.. image:: figs/Monaco/tab8-6.pngh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]urifigs/Monaco/tab8-6.pngj.}j0j^$suhjh jP$h!h"hKubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jM$ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jJ$ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj<h j>$ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]colsKuhjh j-$ubeh}(h]tab8-6ah]h]tab8-6ah]h]jicenterwidth70%uhjh j`#ubh;)}(hXThe keyword “doseData=” can be used to create a response using the
original, point-wise data (except for Claiborne-Trubey where the
original data is a histogram). Data points are also extrapolated to
cover the energy range of 10\ :sup:`-5` to 2×10\ :sup:`7` eV for
neutrons and up to 20 MeV for photons. (The optional keyword
“noExtrapolation” can be used to get just the original data without the
extrapolations.) The final response is formed by interpolating (lin-lin)
between these points. For multigroup problems, these keywords will
collapse the original data (with or without extrapolation) into a
multigroup structure but without the weighting function used to create
the dose factors in the multigroup libraries. This will not match the
multigroup responses in the those libraries.h](h/The keyword “doseData=” can be used to create a response using the
original, point-wise data (except for Claiborne-Trubey where the
original data is a histogram). Data points are also extrapolated to
cover the energy range of 10 }(hThe keyword “doseData=” can be used to create a response using the
original, point-wise data (except for Claiborne-Trubey where the
original data is a histogram). Data points are also extrapolated to
cover the energy range of 10\ h j$ubj")}(h :sup:`-5`h]h/-5}(hhh j$ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj"h j$ubh/ to 2×10 }(h to 2×10\ h j$ubj")}(h:sup:`7`h]h/7}(hhh j$ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj"h j$ubh/X eV for
neutrons and up to 20 MeV for photons. (The optional keyword
“noExtrapolation” can be used to get just the original data without the
extrapolations.) The final response is formed by interpolating (lin-lin)
between these points. For multigroup problems, these keywords will
collapse the original data (with or without extrapolation) into a
multigroup structure but without the weighting function used to create
the dose factors in the multigroup libraries. This will not match the
multigroup responses in the those libraries.}(hX eV for
neutrons and up to 20 MeV for photons. (The optional keyword
“noExtrapolation” can be used to get just the original data without the
extrapolations.) The final response is formed by interpolating (lin-lin)
between these points. For multigroup problems, these keywords will
collapse the original data (with or without extrapolation) into a
multigroup structure but without the weighting function used to create
the dose factors in the multigroup libraries. This will not match the
multigroup responses in the those libraries.h j$ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j`#ubj)}(hread definitions
response 1
doseData=9031
end response
response 1
doseData=9031 noExtrapolation
end response
end definitionsh]h/read definitions
response 1
doseData=9031
end response
response 1
doseData=9031 noExtrapolation
end response
end definitions}(hhh j$ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjuhjh!h"hMh j`#ubh;)}(hAs an example of the various forms of a flux-to-dose conversion factor,
the ANSI 1991 values (MT=9031 and 9505) are shown in
:numref:`fig8-8` through :numref:`fig8-11`.h](h/}As an example of the various forms of a flux-to-dose conversion factor,
the ANSI 1991 values (MT=9031 and 9505) are shown in
}(h}As an example of the various forms of a flux-to-dose conversion factor,
the ANSI 1991 values (MT=9031 and 9505) are shown in
h j$ubj)}(h:numref:`fig8-8`h]j
)}(hj$h]h/fig8-8}(hhh j$ubah}(h]h](jstd
std-numrefeh]h]h]uhjh j$ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]refdocj refdomainj$reftypenumrefrefexplicitrefwarnj*fig8-8uhjh!h"hMh j$ubh/ through }(h through h j$ubj)}(h:numref:`fig8-11`h]j
)}(hj$h]h/fig8-11}(hhh j$ubah}(h]h](jstd
std-numrefeh]h]h]uhjh j$ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]refdocj refdomainj%reftypenumrefrefexplicitrefwarnj*fig8-11uhjh!h"hMh j$ubh/.}(hjh j$ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j`#ubh)}(h.. _fig8-8:h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hfig8-8uhh
hMh j`#ubj)}(hhh](j)}(h.. figure:: figs/Monaco/8-8.png
:align: center
:width: 600
ANSI 1991 neutron CE (left is log-log, right is linear-linear)
h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]width600urifigs/Monaco/8-8.pngj.}j0j:%suhjh j*%h!h"hKubj2)}(h>ANSI 1991 neutron CE (left is log-log, right is linear-linear)h]h/>ANSI 1991 neutron CE (left is log-log, right is linear-linear)}(hj>%h j<%ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj1h!h"hMh j*%ubeh}(h](id30j)%eh]h]fig8-8ah]h]jicenteruhjhMh j`#j}jO%j%sj}j)%j%subh)}(h.. _fig8-9:h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hfig8-9uhh
hMh j`#ubj)}(hhh](j)}(h.. figure:: figs/Monaco/8-9.png
:align: center
:width: 600
ANSI 1991 neutron MULTIGROUP (left is log-log, right is linear-linear)
h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]width600urifigs/Monaco/8-9.pngj.}j0jp%suhjh j`%h!h"hKubj2)}(hFANSI 1991 neutron MULTIGROUP (left is log-log, right is linear-linear)h]h/FANSI 1991 neutron MULTIGROUP (left is log-log, right is linear-linear)}(hjt%h jr%ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj1h!h"hMh j`%ubeh}(h](id31j_%eh]h]fig8-9ah]h]jicenteruhjhMh j`#j}j%jU%sj}j_%jU%subh)}(h.. _fig8-10:h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hfig8-10uhh
hMh j`#ubj)}(hhh](j)}(h.. figure:: figs/Monaco/8-10.png
:align: center
:width: 600
ANSI 1991 photon CE (left is log-log, right is linear-linear)
h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]width600urifigs/Monaco/8-10.pngj.}j0j%suhjh j%h!h"hKubj2)}(h=ANSI 1991 photon CE (left is log-log, right is linear-linear)h]h/=ANSI 1991 photon CE (left is log-log, right is linear-linear)}(hj%h j%ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj1h!h"hMh j%ubeh}(h](id32j%eh]h]fig8-10ah]h]jicenteruhjhMh j`#j}j%j%sj}j%j%subh)}(h.. _fig8-11:h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hfig8-11uhh
hMh j`#ubj)}(hhh](j)}(h.. figure:: figs/Monaco/8-11.png
:align: center
:width: 600
ANSI 1991 photon MULTIGROUP (left is log-log, right is linear-linear)
h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]width600urifigs/Monaco/8-11.pngj.}j0j%suhjh j%h!h"hKubj2)}(hEANSI 1991 photon MULTIGROUP (left is log-log, right is linear-linear)h]h/EANSI 1991 photon MULTIGROUP (left is log-log, right is linear-linear)}(hj%h j%ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj1h!h"hMh j%ubeh}(h](id33j%eh]h]fig8-11ah]h]jicenteruhjhMh j`#j}j%j%sj}j%j%subh;)}(hXThe use of the “specialDose=” and “doseData=” keywords is summarized in
:numref:`tab8-7`. Users should understand that the only way to get the ‘true’
response described in the original references is to use the “doseData=”
and “noExtrapolation” keywords. The traditional approach in SCALE has
been to extrapolate the original data over the entire energy range of
the problem, yielding higher dose rates than the ‘true’ response would.^h](h/PThe use of the “specialDose=” and “doseData=” keywords is summarized in
}(hPThe use of the “specialDose=” and “doseData=” keywords is summarized in
h j%ubj)}(h:numref:`tab8-7`h]j
)}(hj&h]h/tab8-7}(hhh j&ubah}(h]h](jstd
std-numrefeh]h]h]uhjh j&ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]refdocj refdomainj&reftypenumrefrefexplicitrefwarnj*tab8-7uhjh!h"hMh j%ubh/Xi. Users should understand that the only way to get the ‘true’
response described in the original references is to use the “doseData=”
and “noExtrapolation” keywords. The traditional approach in SCALE has
been to extrapolate the original data over the entire energy range of
the problem, yielding higher dose rates than the ‘true’ response would.}(hXi. Users should understand that the only way to get the ‘true’
response described in the original references is to use the “doseData=”
and “noExtrapolation” keywords. The traditional approach in SCALE has
been to extrapolate the original data over the entire energy range of
the problem, yielding higher dose rates than the ‘true’ response would.h j%ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j`#ubj)}(hhh](h))}(h;Use of the “specialDose=” and “doseData=” keywords.h]h/;Use of the “specialDose=” and “doseData=” keywords.}(hj0&h j.&ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h!h"hMh j+&ubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]jiKduhjh j<&ubj=)}(hhh]j)}(hhh]j)}(hhh]j)}(h!.. image:: figs/Monaco/tab8-7.pngh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]urifigs/Monaco/tab8-7.pngj.}j0j\&suhjh jN&h!h"hKubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jK&ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jH&ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj<h j<&ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]colsKuhjh j+&ubeh}(h]tab8-7ah]h]tab8-7ah]h]jicenteruhjh j`#ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj h jN#ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjj h!h"hMh jK#ubjk )}(hXType 4.
For multigroup calculations, since the energy structure is
already known, a response can be defined by listing just the values for
each group using the keyword “values … end”. The array length of this
type of response should match the number of energy groups for that
particle type in the cross-section library. Values should be entered in
the standard multigroup order – from high energy to low energy. The
shortcut keyword “unity” places a value of 1.0 as the response for each
group.
::
response 19
title="Total Photon Dose at Each Detector Point Location (ANSI 9504)"
photon
values 1.16200E-05 8.74457E-06 7.45967E-06
6.35058E-06 5.39949E-06 4.60165E-06 3.95227E-06 3.45885E-06
3.01309E-06 2.62001E-06 2.19445E-06 1.82696E-06 1.51490E-06
1.15954E-06 8.70450E-07 6.21874E-07 3.70808E-07 2.68778E-07
5.93272E-07 end
end response
response 4
title=”total photon flux above 1 MeV, photons/(/cm2/sec)”
photon
values 11r1.0 8r0.0 end
end response
response 99
title=”put a 1 in every group”
neutron
unity
end response
The different response types all share some optional keywords. The
keyword “makeChart” can be used to produce a \*.chart file (called
‘\ *outputName*.resp\ *id*.chart’) so that the response can be plotted
with the ChartPlot 2D plotter. To create files for every response, use
the keyword “makeCharts” inside the definitions block but outside any
particular response definition. The keyword “multiplier=” can be used
with any type of response, which is useful for things such as units
conversions. Multiple uses of the “multiplier=” keyword within one
response definition will apply the product of all multipliers to that
response. Using the keyword “multiplier=” in the definitions block but
outside any particular response will apply that multiplier to all
responses. Keywords “eHigh=” and “eLow=” can be used to only keep the
response values in a range between eHigh and eLow (both in eV). The
keyword “lessOutput” can be used to suppress response data echoing in
the output file and minimize output file size particularly for CE
responses that can have fine point-wise data. It will cause to print
only the first five and the last five points of the data if the number
of bins is greater than twenty for binned histogram and value/function
pairs type of responses.
The original flux-to-dose conversion factor references that were
incorporated into Monaco are:
- ANSI/ANS-6.1.1-1977 (N666) “American National Standard Neutron and
Gamma-Ray Flux-to-Dose-Rate Factors,” Prepared by the American Nuclear
Society Standards Committee Working Group ANS-6.1.1, Published by the
American Nuclear Society, 555 North Kensington Avenue LaGrange Park,
Illinois 60525, Approved March 17, 1977 by the American National
Standards Institute, Inc.
- ANSI/ANS·6.1.1-1991, “American National Standard for Neutron and
Gamma-Ray Fluence-to-Dose Factors,” Prepared by the American Nuclear
Society Standards Committee Working Group ANS-6.1.1, Published by the
American Nuclear Society, 555 North Kensington Avenue LaGrange Park,
Illinois 60525 USA, Approved August 26, 1991 by the American National
Standards Institute, Inc.
- H. C. Claiborne and D. K. Trubey, “Dose Rates in a Slab Phantom from
Monoenergetic Gamma Rays,” *Nuclear Applications & Technology*, Vol. 8,
May 1970.
- B. J. Henderson, “Conversion of Neutron or Gamma Ray Flux to Absorbed
Dose Rate,” ORNL Report No. XDC-59-8-179, August 14, 1959.
- International Commission of Radiation Units and Measurements, *ICRU
Report 44: Tissue Substitutes in Radiation Dosimetry and Measurement*,
Bethesda, MD, 1989.
- International Commission of Radiation Units and Measurements, *ICRU
Report 57: Conversion Coefficients for use in Radiological Protection
Against External Radiation*, Bethesda, MD, August 1, 1998.
h](jq )}(hType 4.h]h/Type 4.}(hj&h j&ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjp h!h"hMdh j&ubj )}(hhh](h;)}(hXFor multigroup calculations, since the energy structure is
already known, a response can be defined by listing just the values for
each group using the keyword “values … end”. The array length of this
type of response should match the number of energy groups for that
particle type in the cross-section library. Values should be entered in
the standard multigroup order – from high energy to low energy. The
shortcut keyword “unity” places a value of 1.0 as the response for each
group.h]h/XFor multigroup calculations, since the energy structure is
already known, a response can be defined by listing just the values for
each group using the keyword “values … end”. The array length of this
type of response should match the number of energy groups for that
particle type in the cross-section library. Values should be entered in
the standard multigroup order – from high energy to low energy. The
shortcut keyword “unity” places a value of 1.0 as the response for each
group.}(hj&h j&ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j&ubj)}(hXresponse 19
title="Total Photon Dose at Each Detector Point Location (ANSI 9504)"
photon
values 1.16200E-05 8.74457E-06 7.45967E-06
6.35058E-06 5.39949E-06 4.60165E-06 3.95227E-06 3.45885E-06
3.01309E-06 2.62001E-06 2.19445E-06 1.82696E-06 1.51490E-06
1.15954E-06 8.70450E-07 6.21874E-07 3.70808E-07 2.68778E-07
5.93272E-07 end
end response
response 4
title=”total photon flux above 1 MeV, photons/(/cm2/sec)”
photon
values 11r1.0 8r0.0 end
end response
response 99
title=”put a 1 in every group”
neutron
unity
end responseh]h/Xresponse 19
title="Total Photon Dose at Each Detector Point Location (ANSI 9504)"
photon
values 1.16200E-05 8.74457E-06 7.45967E-06
6.35058E-06 5.39949E-06 4.60165E-06 3.95227E-06 3.45885E-06
3.01309E-06 2.62001E-06 2.19445E-06 1.82696E-06 1.51490E-06
1.15954E-06 8.70450E-07 6.21874E-07 3.70808E-07 2.68778E-07
5.93272E-07 end
end response
response 4
title=”total photon flux above 1 MeV, photons/(/cm2/sec)”
photon
values 11r1.0 8r0.0 end
end response
response 99
title=”put a 1 in every group”
neutron
unity
end response}(hhh j&ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjuhjh!h"hMh j&ubh;)}(hXThe different response types all share some optional keywords. The
keyword “makeChart” can be used to produce a \*.chart file (called
‘\ *outputName*.resp\ *id*.chart’) so that the response can be plotted
with the ChartPlot 2D plotter. To create files for every response, use
the keyword “makeCharts” inside the definitions block but outside any
particular response definition. The keyword “multiplier=” can be used
with any type of response, which is useful for things such as units
conversions. Multiple uses of the “multiplier=” keyword within one
response definition will apply the product of all multipliers to that
response. Using the keyword “multiplier=” in the definitions block but
outside any particular response will apply that multiplier to all
responses. Keywords “eHigh=” and “eLow=” can be used to only keep the
response values in a range between eHigh and eLow (both in eV). The
keyword “lessOutput” can be used to suppress response data echoing in
the output file and minimize output file size particularly for CE
responses that can have fine point-wise data. It will cause to print
only the first five and the last five points of the data if the number
of bins is greater than twenty for binned histogram and value/function
pairs type of responses.h](h/The different response types all share some optional keywords. The
keyword “makeChart” can be used to produce a *.chart file (called
‘ }(hThe different response types all share some optional keywords. The
keyword “makeChart” can be used to produce a \*.chart file (called
‘\ h j&ubhA)}(h*outputName*h]h/
outputName}(hhh j&ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j&ubh/.resp }(h.resp\ h j&ubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh j&ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j&ubh/Xq.chart’) so that the response can be plotted
with the ChartPlot 2D plotter. To create files for every response, use
the keyword “makeCharts” inside the definitions block but outside any
particular response definition. The keyword “multiplier=” can be used
with any type of response, which is useful for things such as units
conversions. Multiple uses of the “multiplier=” keyword within one
response definition will apply the product of all multipliers to that
response. Using the keyword “multiplier=” in the definitions block but
outside any particular response will apply that multiplier to all
responses. Keywords “eHigh=” and “eLow=” can be used to only keep the
response values in a range between eHigh and eLow (both in eV). The
keyword “lessOutput” can be used to suppress response data echoing in
the output file and minimize output file size particularly for CE
responses that can have fine point-wise data. It will cause to print
only the first five and the last five points of the data if the number
of bins is greater than twenty for binned histogram and value/function
pairs type of responses.}(hXq.chart’) so that the response can be plotted
with the ChartPlot 2D plotter. To create files for every response, use
the keyword “makeCharts” inside the definitions block but outside any
particular response definition. The keyword “multiplier=” can be used
with any type of response, which is useful for things such as units
conversions. Multiple uses of the “multiplier=” keyword within one
response definition will apply the product of all multipliers to that
response. Using the keyword “multiplier=” in the definitions block but
outside any particular response will apply that multiplier to all
responses. Keywords “eHigh=” and “eLow=” can be used to only keep the
response values in a range between eHigh and eLow (both in eV). The
keyword “lessOutput” can be used to suppress response data echoing in
the output file and minimize output file size particularly for CE
responses that can have fine point-wise data. It will cause to print
only the first five and the last five points of the data if the number
of bins is greater than twenty for binned histogram and value/function
pairs type of responses.h j&ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM2h j&ubh;)}(h^The original flux-to-dose conversion factor references that were
incorporated into Monaco are:h]h/^The original flux-to-dose conversion factor references that were
incorporated into Monaco are:}(hj&h j&ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMFh j&ubj)}(hhh]jp)}(hhh](j)}(hXtANSI/ANS-6.1.1-1977 (N666) “American National Standard Neutron and
Gamma-Ray Flux-to-Dose-Rate Factors,” Prepared by the American Nuclear
Society Standards Committee Working Group ANS-6.1.1, Published by the
American Nuclear Society, 555 North Kensington Avenue LaGrange Park,
Illinois 60525, Approved March 17, 1977 by the American National
Standards Institute, Inc.
h]h;)}(hXsANSI/ANS-6.1.1-1977 (N666) “American National Standard Neutron and
Gamma-Ray Flux-to-Dose-Rate Factors,” Prepared by the American Nuclear
Society Standards Committee Working Group ANS-6.1.1, Published by the
American Nuclear Society, 555 North Kensington Avenue LaGrange Park,
Illinois 60525, Approved March 17, 1977 by the American National
Standards Institute, Inc.h]h/XsANSI/ANS-6.1.1-1977 (N666) “American National Standard Neutron and
Gamma-Ray Flux-to-Dose-Rate Factors,” Prepared by the American Nuclear
Society Standards Committee Working Group ANS-6.1.1, Published by the
American Nuclear Society, 555 North Kensington Avenue LaGrange Park,
Illinois 60525, Approved March 17, 1977 by the American National
Standards Institute, Inc.}(hj'h j
'ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMIh j'ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j'ubj)}(hXvANSI/ANS·6.1.1-1991, “American National Standard for Neutron and
Gamma-Ray Fluence-to-Dose Factors,” Prepared by the American Nuclear
Society Standards Committee Working Group ANS-6.1.1, Published by the
American Nuclear Society, 555 North Kensington Avenue LaGrange Park,
Illinois 60525 USA, Approved August 26, 1991 by the American National
Standards Institute, Inc.
h]h;)}(hXuANSI/ANS·6.1.1-1991, “American National Standard for Neutron and
Gamma-Ray Fluence-to-Dose Factors,” Prepared by the American Nuclear
Society Standards Committee Working Group ANS-6.1.1, Published by the
American Nuclear Society, 555 North Kensington Avenue LaGrange Park,
Illinois 60525 USA, Approved August 26, 1991 by the American National
Standards Institute, Inc.h]h/XuANSI/ANS·6.1.1-1991, “American National Standard for Neutron and
Gamma-Ray Fluence-to-Dose Factors,” Prepared by the American Nuclear
Society Standards Committee Working Group ANS-6.1.1, Published by the
American Nuclear Society, 555 North Kensington Avenue LaGrange Park,
Illinois 60525 USA, Approved August 26, 1991 by the American National
Standards Institute, Inc.}(hj$'h j"'ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMPh j'ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j'ubj)}(hH. C. Claiborne and D. K. Trubey, “Dose Rates in a Slab Phantom from
Monoenergetic Gamma Rays,” *Nuclear Applications & Technology*, Vol. 8,
May 1970.
h]h;)}(hH. C. Claiborne and D. K. Trubey, “Dose Rates in a Slab Phantom from
Monoenergetic Gamma Rays,” *Nuclear Applications & Technology*, Vol. 8,
May 1970.h](h/dH. C. Claiborne and D. K. Trubey, “Dose Rates in a Slab Phantom from
Monoenergetic Gamma Rays,” }(hdH. C. Claiborne and D. K. Trubey, “Dose Rates in a Slab Phantom from
Monoenergetic Gamma Rays,” h j:'ubhA)}(h#*Nuclear Applications & Technology*h]h/!Nuclear Applications & Technology}(hhh jC'ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j:'ubh/, Vol. 8,
May 1970.}(h, Vol. 8,
May 1970.h j:'ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMWh j6'ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j'ubj)}(hB. J. Henderson, “Conversion of Neutron or Gamma Ray Flux to Absorbed
Dose Rate,” ORNL Report No. XDC-59-8-179, August 14, 1959.
h]h;)}(hB. J. Henderson, “Conversion of Neutron or Gamma Ray Flux to Absorbed
Dose Rate,” ORNL Report No. XDC-59-8-179, August 14, 1959.h]h/B. J. Henderson, “Conversion of Neutron or Gamma Ray Flux to Absorbed
Dose Rate,” ORNL Report No. XDC-59-8-179, August 14, 1959.}(hjh'h jf'ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM[h jb'ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j'ubj)}(hInternational Commission of Radiation Units and Measurements, *ICRU
Report 44: Tissue Substitutes in Radiation Dosimetry and Measurement*,
Bethesda, MD, 1989.
h]h;)}(hInternational Commission of Radiation Units and Measurements, *ICRU
Report 44: Tissue Substitutes in Radiation Dosimetry and Measurement*,
Bethesda, MD, 1989.h](h/>International Commission of Radiation Units and Measurements, }(h>International Commission of Radiation Units and Measurements, h j~'ubhA)}(hK*ICRU
Report 44: Tissue Substitutes in Radiation Dosimetry and Measurement*h]h/IICRU
Report 44: Tissue Substitutes in Radiation Dosimetry and Measurement}(hhh j'ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j~'ubh/,
Bethesda, MD, 1989.}(h,
Bethesda, MD, 1989.h j~'ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM^h jz'ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j'ubj)}(hInternational Commission of Radiation Units and Measurements, *ICRU
Report 57: Conversion Coefficients for use in Radiological Protection
Against External Radiation*, Bethesda, MD, August 1, 1998.
h]h;)}(hInternational Commission of Radiation Units and Measurements, *ICRU
Report 57: Conversion Coefficients for use in Radiological Protection
Against External Radiation*, Bethesda, MD, August 1, 1998.h](h/>International Commission of Radiation Units and Measurements, }(h>International Commission of Radiation Units and Measurements, h j'ubhA)}(hg*ICRU
Report 57: Conversion Coefficients for use in Radiological Protection
Against External Radiation*h]h/eICRU
Report 57: Conversion Coefficients for use in Radiological Protection
Against External Radiation}(hhh j'ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j'ubh/, Bethesda, MD, August 1, 1998.}(h, Bethesda, MD, August 1, 1998.h j'ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMbh j'ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j'ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]jjuhjoh!h"hMIh j'ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j&ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj h j&ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjj h!h"hMdh jK#hhubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhje h jC hhh!NhNubeh}(h]response-functionsah]h]response functionsah]h]uhh#h jhhh!h"hM%ubh$)}(hhh](h))}(hGrid geometriesh]h/Grid geometries}(hj'h j'hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h j'hhh!h"hMgubh;)}(hXGrid geometries (“gridGeometry”) require an identification number and
then a description of a 3‑D rectangular mesh by specifying the bounding
planes of the cells in each of the *x*, *y*, and *z* dimensions. The
keyword “xplanes … end” can be used to list plane values (in any order).
The keyword “xLinear *n* *a* *b*\ ” can be used to specify *n* cells
between *a* and *b*. The keywords “xplanes” and “xLinear” can be used
together and multiple times – they will simply add planes to any already
defined for that dimension. Any duplicate planes will be removed.
Similar keywords are used for the *y*- and *z*-dimensions.h](h/Grid geometries (“gridGeometry”) require an identification number and
then a description of a 3‑D rectangular mesh by specifying the bounding
planes of the cells in each of the }(hGrid geometries (“gridGeometry”) require an identification number and
then a description of a 3‑D rectangular mesh by specifying the bounding
planes of the cells in each of the h j (hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*x*h]h/x}(hhh j(ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j (ubh/, }(h, h j (hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*y*h]h/y}(hhh j%(ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j (ubh/, and }(h, and h j (hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*z*h]h/z}(hhh j8(ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j (ubh/x dimensions. The
keyword “xplanes … end” can be used to list plane values (in any order).
The keyword “xLinear }(hx dimensions. The
keyword “xplanes … end” can be used to list plane values (in any order).
The keyword “xLinear h j (hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*n*h]h/n}(hhh jK(ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j (ubh/ }(h h j (hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*a*h]h/a}(hhh j^(ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j (ubh/ }(hj](h j (ubhA)}(h*b*h]h/b}(hhh jp(ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j (ubh/ ” can be used to specify }(h\ ” can be used to specify h j (hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*n*h]h/n}(hhh j(ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j (ubh/ cells
between }(h cells
between h j (hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*a*h]h/a}(hhh j(ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j (ubh/ and }(h and h j (hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*b*h]h/b}(hhh j(ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j (ubh/. The keywords “xplanes” and “xLinear” can be used
together and multiple times – they will simply add planes to any already
defined for that dimension. Any duplicate planes will be removed.
Similar keywords are used for the }(h. The keywords “xplanes” and “xLinear” can be used
together and multiple times – they will simply add planes to any already
defined for that dimension. Any duplicate planes will be removed.
Similar keywords are used for the h j (hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*y*h]h/y}(hhh j(ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j (ubh/- and }(h- and h j (hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*z*h]h/z}(hhh j(ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j (ubh/-dimensions.}(h-dimensions.h j (hhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMih j'hhubj)}(hX_gridGeometry 3
title="Boring uniform grid"
xLinear 10 -100 100
yLinear 10 -100 100
zLinear 10 -100 100
end gridGeometry
gridGeometry 2
xplanes -100.0 -90.0 -99.0 -95.0 end
xLinear 9 -90.0 0.0
xLinear 18 0.0 90.0
xplanes 95.0 100.0 99.0 end
yLinear 20 100.0 -100.0
zLinear 40 100.0 -100.0
end gridGeometryh]h/X_gridGeometry 3
title="Boring uniform grid"
xLinear 10 -100 100
yLinear 10 -100 100
zLinear 10 -100 100
end gridGeometry
gridGeometry 2
xplanes -100.0 -90.0 -99.0 -95.0 end
xLinear 9 -90.0 0.0
xLinear 18 0.0 90.0
xplanes 95.0 100.0 99.0 end
yLinear 20 100.0 -100.0
zLinear 40 100.0 -100.0
end gridGeometry}(hhh j(ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjuhjh!h"hMuh j'hhubh;)}(hXKWhen using multiple instances of the keyword \*Linear and \*planes for a
given dimension, duplicates should be removed from the final list. In
some cases, double precision math will leave two planes that are nearly
identical but not removed (for example: 6.0 and 5.9999999). To prevent
this, a default tolerance is set to remove planes that are within
10\ :sup:`-6` cm of each other. The user is free to change this by using
the keyword “tolerance=” and specifying something else. Note that the
tolerance can be reset to a different value in between each use of
\*Linear or \*planes.h](h/XdWhen using multiple instances of the keyword *Linear and *planes for a
given dimension, duplicates should be removed from the final list. In
some cases, double precision math will leave two planes that are nearly
identical but not removed (for example: 6.0 and 5.9999999). To prevent
this, a default tolerance is set to remove planes that are within
10 }(hXdWhen using multiple instances of the keyword \*Linear and \*planes for a
given dimension, duplicates should be removed from the final list. In
some cases, double precision math will leave two planes that are nearly
identical but not removed (for example: 6.0 and 5.9999999). To prevent
this, a default tolerance is set to remove planes that are within
10\ h j(hhh!NhNubj")}(h :sup:`-6`h]h/-6}(hhh j(ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj"h j(ubh/ cm of each other. The user is free to change this by using
the keyword “tolerance=” and specifying something else. Note that the
tolerance can be reset to a different value in between each use of
*Linear or *planes.}(h cm of each other. The user is free to change this by using
the keyword “tolerance=” and specifying something else. Note that the
tolerance can be reset to a different value in between each use of
\*Linear or \*planes.h j(hhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j'hhubh;)}(hXhThe keyword “make3dmap” for a particular grid geometry definition will
create a file called ‘\ *outputName*.grid\ *id*.3dmap’ which can be
visualized using the Java Mesh File Viewer. Using the keyword
“make3dmaps” in the definitions block but outside any particular
gridGeometry definition will create a geometry file for each
gridGeometry defined.h](h/eThe keyword “make3dmap” for a particular grid geometry definition will
create a file called ‘ }(heThe keyword “make3dmap” for a particular grid geometry definition will
create a file called ‘\ h j)hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*outputName*h]h/
outputName}(hhh j!)ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j)ubh/.grid }(h.grid\ h j)hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh j4)ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j)ubh/.3dmap’ which can be
visualized using the Java Mesh File Viewer. Using the keyword
“make3dmaps” in the definitions block but outside any particular
gridGeometry definition will create a geometry file for each
gridGeometry defined.}(h.3dmap’ which can be
visualized using the Java Mesh File Viewer. Using the keyword
“make3dmaps” in the definitions block but outside any particular
gridGeometry definition will create a geometry file for each
gridGeometry defined.h j)hhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j'hhubeh}(h]grid-geometriesah]h]grid geometriesah]h]uhh#h jhhh!h"hMgubh$)}(hhh](h))}(hCylindrical mesh geometriesh]h/Cylindrical mesh geometries}(hjZ)h jX)hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h jU)hhh!h"hMubh;)}(hXCylindrical geometries (“cylGeometry”) require an identification number
and then a description of a 3‑D cylindrical mesh by specifying the
bounding planes of the cells in each of the *r*, *θ*, and
*z* dimensions. The keywords “radii … end”, “thetas … end”, and “zplanes
… end” can be used to list the plane values in any order. The keywords
“radiusLinear *n* *a* *b*\ ”, “thetaLinear *n* *a* *b*\ ”, and “zLinear
*n* *a* *b*\ ” can be used to specify *n* cells between *a* and *b*.
Note that the keywords “thetas” and “thetaLinear” expect values between
0 and 2π. For entering values between 0 and 360°, use the keywords
“degrees” and “degreeLinear” instead. The keywords for each dimension
can be used together and multiple times – they will simply add planes to
any already defined for that dimension. Any duplicate planes will be
removed.h](h/Cylindrical geometries (“cylGeometry”) require an identification number
and then a description of a 3‑D cylindrical mesh by specifying the
bounding planes of the cells in each of the }(hCylindrical geometries (“cylGeometry”) require an identification number
and then a description of a 3‑D cylindrical mesh by specifying the
bounding planes of the cells in each of the h jf)hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*r*h]h/r}(hhh jo)ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jf)ubh/, }(h, h jf)hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*θ*h]h/θ}(hhh j)ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jf)ubh/, and
}(h, and
h jf)hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*z*h]h/z}(hhh j)ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jf)ubh/ dimensions. The keywords “radii … end”, “thetas … end”, and “zplanes
… end” can be used to list the plane values in any order. The keywords
“radiusLinear }(h dimensions. The keywords “radii … end”, “thetas … end”, and “zplanes
… end” can be used to list the plane values in any order. The keywords
“radiusLinear h jf)hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*n*h]h/n}(hhh j)ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jf)ubh/ }(hj](h jf)hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*a*h]h/a}(hhh j)ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jf)ubh/ }(hj](h jf)ubhA)}(h*b*h]h/b}(hhh j)ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jf)ubh/ ”, “thetaLinear }(h\ ”, “thetaLinear h jf)hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*n*h]h/n}(hhh j)ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jf)ubh/ }(hj](h jf)ubhA)}(h*a*h]h/a}(hhh j)ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jf)ubh/ }(hj](h jf)ubhA)}(h*b*h]h/b}(hhh j*ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jf)ubh/ ”, and “zLinear
}(h\ ”, and “zLinear
h jf)hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*n*h]h/n}(hhh j*ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jf)ubh/ }(hj](h jf)ubhA)}(h*a*h]h/a}(hhh j(*ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jf)ubh/ }(hj](h jf)ubhA)}(h*b*h]h/b}(hhh j:*ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jf)ubh/ ” can be used to specify }(h\ ” can be used to specify h jf)hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*n*h]h/n}(hhh jM*ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jf)ubh/ cells between }(h cells between h jf)hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*a*h]h/a}(hhh j`*ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jf)ubh/ and }(h and h jf)hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*b*h]h/b}(hhh js*ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jf)ubh/X}.
Note that the keywords “thetas” and “thetaLinear” expect values between
0 and 2π. For entering values between 0 and 360°, use the keywords
“degrees” and “degreeLinear” instead. The keywords for each dimension
can be used together and multiple times – they will simply add planes to
any already defined for that dimension. Any duplicate planes will be
removed.}(hX}.
Note that the keywords “thetas” and “thetaLinear” expect values between
0 and 2π. For entering values between 0 and 360°, use the keywords
“degrees” and “degreeLinear” instead. The keywords for each dimension
can be used together and multiple times – they will simply add planes to
any already defined for that dimension. Any duplicate planes will be
removed.h jf)hhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jU)hhubh;)}(hXCylindrical meshes are oriented along the positive z-axis by default. To
change this, the user can specify the axis of the cylinder using the
keyword “zaxis *u v w*\ ” and specify the perpendicular direction where
*θ* =0 using “xaxis *u v w*\ ”. To change the base position of the
cylinder, use the keyword “position *x y z*\ ”. Some examples of
cylindrical mesh geometries include:h](h/Cylindrical meshes are oriented along the positive z-axis by default. To
change this, the user can specify the axis of the cylinder using the
keyword “zaxis }(hCylindrical meshes are oriented along the positive z-axis by default. To
change this, the user can specify the axis of the cylinder using the
keyword “zaxis h j*hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*u v w*h]h/u v w}(hhh j*ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j*ubh/4 ” and specify the perpendicular direction where
}(h4\ ” and specify the perpendicular direction where
h j*hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*θ*h]h/θ}(hhh j*ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j*ubh/ =0 using “xaxis }(h =0 using “xaxis h j*hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*u v w*h]h/u v w}(hhh j*ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j*ubh/P ”. To change the base position of the
cylinder, use the keyword “position }(hP\ ”. To change the base position of the
cylinder, use the keyword “position h j*hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*x y z*h]h/x y z}(hhh j*ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j*ubh/< ”. Some examples of
cylindrical mesh geometries include:}(h<\ ”. Some examples of
cylindrical mesh geometries include:h j*hhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jU)hhubj)}(hX<cylGeometry 12
radiusLinear 20 100.0 168.0
radiusLinear 10 168.0 368.0
degreeLinear 12 0 360
zLinear 25 255.2 -255.2
zPlanes -45.0 -40. -35.0 end
end cylGeometry
cylGeometry 13
title="degenerate: only one angular bin"
radiusLinear 10 168.0 368.0
thetaLinear 1 0.0 6.2831853
zLinear 25 255.2 -255.2
end cylGeometry
cylGeometry 14
title="degenerate: emulate surface tally over partial angle range"
radiusLinear 1 367.5 368.5
degreeLinear 1 45 135
zLinear 25 255.2 -255.2
zaxis 0 0 1
xaxis 0 -1 0
end cylGeometryh]h/X<cylGeometry 12
radiusLinear 20 100.0 168.0
radiusLinear 10 168.0 368.0
degreeLinear 12 0 360
zLinear 25 255.2 -255.2
zPlanes -45.0 -40. -35.0 end
end cylGeometry
cylGeometry 13
title="degenerate: only one angular bin"
radiusLinear 10 168.0 368.0
thetaLinear 1 0.0 6.2831853
zLinear 25 255.2 -255.2
end cylGeometry
cylGeometry 14
title="degenerate: emulate surface tally over partial angle range"
radiusLinear 1 367.5 368.5
degreeLinear 1 45 135
zLinear 25 255.2 -255.2
zaxis 0 0 1
xaxis 0 -1 0
end cylGeometry}(hhh j*ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjuhjh!h"hMh jU)hhubh;)}(hXLSimilar to the grid geometries, the user can use the keyword
“tolerance=” to specify how close duplicate planes can be when being
considered for removal. The keyword “makeCylMap” for a particular
cylindrical geometry definition will create a file called
‘\ *outputName*.cyl\ *id*.3dmap’ which can be visualized using the Java
Mesh File Viewer. Using the keyword “makeCylMaps” in the definitions
block but outside any particular gridGeometry definition will create a
geometry file for each gridGeometry defined. The Mesh File Viewer is
written for rectilinear geometries and will not display circles. The
only view that works in the Mesh File Viewer for cylindrical meshes is
the *x*-*z* view, which will correctly show an *r*-*z* slice. The slider
(marked “\ *y*\ ”) will control which *θ* value to display (from 0 to
2π).h](h/XSimilar to the grid geometries, the user can use the keyword
“tolerance=” to specify how close duplicate planes can be when being
considered for removal. The keyword “makeCylMap” for a particular
cylindrical geometry definition will create a file called
‘ }(hXSimilar to the grid geometries, the user can use the keyword
“tolerance=” to specify how close duplicate planes can be when being
considered for removal. The keyword “makeCylMap” for a particular
cylindrical geometry definition will create a file called
‘\ h j*hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*outputName*h]h/
outputName}(hhh j*ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j*ubh/.cyl }(h.cyl\ h j*hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh j+ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j*ubh/X.3dmap’ which can be visualized using the Java
Mesh File Viewer. Using the keyword “makeCylMaps” in the definitions
block but outside any particular gridGeometry definition will create a
geometry file for each gridGeometry defined. The Mesh File Viewer is
written for rectilinear geometries and will not display circles. The
only view that works in the Mesh File Viewer for cylindrical meshes is
the }(hX.3dmap’ which can be visualized using the Java
Mesh File Viewer. Using the keyword “makeCylMaps” in the definitions
block but outside any particular gridGeometry definition will create a
geometry file for each gridGeometry defined. The Mesh File Viewer is
written for rectilinear geometries and will not display circles. The
only view that works in the Mesh File Viewer for cylindrical meshes is
the h j*hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*x*h]h/x}(hhh j$+ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j*ubh/-}(hjh j*hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*z*h]h/z}(hhh j6+ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j*ubh/$ view, which will correctly show an }(h$ view, which will correctly show an h j*hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*r*h]h/r}(hhh jI+ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j*ubh/-}(hjh j*ubhA)}(h*z*h]h/z}(hhh j[+ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j*ubh/ slice. The slider
(marked “ }(h slice. The slider
(marked “\ h j*hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*y*h]h/y}(hhh jn+ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j*ubh/ ”) will control which }(h\ ”) will control which h j*hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*θ*h]h/θ}(hhh j+ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j*ubh/" value to display (from 0 to
2π).}(h" value to display (from 0 to
2π).h j*hhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jU)hhubh;)}(hCylindrical meshes can only be used for tallies. They cannot be used for
making mesh sources or for any importance calculations in MAVRIC.h]h/Cylindrical meshes can only be used for tallies. They cannot be used for
making mesh sources or for any importance calculations in MAVRIC.}(hj+h j+hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jU)hhubeh}(h]cylindrical-mesh-geometriesah]h]cylindrical mesh geometriesah]h]uhh#h jhhh!h"hMubh$)}(hhh](h))}(h
Distributionsh]h/
Distributions}(hj+h j+hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h j+hhh!h"hMubh;)}(hXHDistributions (“distribution”) require an identification number and
several other keywords depending on the type of distribution. For a
binned histogram distribution over *n* intervals, the keyword “abscissa
… end” is used to list the :math:`n + 1` bin boundaries and the keyword
“truePDF … end” is used to list the :math:`n` values of the pdf
integrated over those bins. For a pdf defined using a series of
evaluated points over :math:`n` intervals, use the keywords “abscissa …
end” and “truePDF … end” listing the :math:`n + 1` values for each. The
“truePDF” values should be the value of the pdf evaluated at the
corresponding point in the abscissa array. The abscissa array should
either be in increasing order or decreasing order – monotonic either way
– with the truePDF array ordered accordingly.h](h/Distributions (“distribution”) require an identification number and
several other keywords depending on the type of distribution. For a
binned histogram distribution over }(hDistributions (“distribution”) require an identification number and
several other keywords depending on the type of distribution. For a
binned histogram distribution over h j+hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*n*h]h/n}(hhh j+ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j+ubh/C intervals, the keyword “abscissa
… end” is used to list the }(hC intervals, the keyword “abscissa
… end” is used to list the h j+hhh!NhNubh)}(h
:math:`n + 1`h]h/n + 1}(hhh j+ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh j+ubh/J bin boundaries and the keyword
“truePDF … end” is used to list the }(hJ bin boundaries and the keyword
“truePDF … end” is used to list the h j+hhh!NhNubh)}(h :math:`n`h]h/n}(hhh j+ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh j+ubh/i values of the pdf
integrated over those bins. For a pdf defined using a series of
evaluated points over }(hi values of the pdf
integrated over those bins. For a pdf defined using a series of
evaluated points over h j+hhh!NhNubh)}(h :math:`n`h]h/n}(hhh j,ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh j+ubh/Z intervals, use the keywords “abscissa …
end” and “truePDF … end” listing the }(hZ intervals, use the keywords “abscissa …
end” and “truePDF … end” listing the h j+hhh!NhNubh)}(h
:math:`n + 1`h]h/n + 1}(hhh j,ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh j+ubh/X values for each. The
“truePDF” values should be the value of the pdf evaluated at the
corresponding point in the abscissa array. The abscissa array should
either be in increasing order or decreasing order – monotonic either way
– with the truePDF array ordered accordingly.}(hX values for each. The
“truePDF” values should be the value of the pdf evaluated at the
corresponding point in the abscissa array. The abscissa array should
either be in increasing order or decreasing order – monotonic either way
– with the truePDF array ordered accordingly.h j+hhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j+hhubh;)}(hX2For either the binned histogram or the value/function point pairs
distributions, biasing can also be specified for a given distribution
using the “biasedPDF … end” keyword, the “weight … end” keyword, or the
“importance ... end” keyword, with a length that matches the truePDF
array. Weights specify the suggested sampling weights for particles and
importances specify the suggested importance. For biasing, the user only
needs to specify just one of “biasedPDF”, “weight” or “importance”. The
other arrays will be computed by Monaco.h]h/X2For either the binned histogram or the value/function point pairs
distributions, biasing can also be specified for a given distribution
using the “biasedPDF … end” keyword, the “weight … end” keyword, or the
“importance … end” keyword, with a length that matches the truePDF
array. Weights specify the suggested sampling weights for particles and
importances specify the suggested importance. For biasing, the user only
needs to specify just one of “biasedPDF”, “weight” or “importance”. The
other arrays will be computed by Monaco.}(hj1,h j/,hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j+hhubh;)}(hX}For discrete distributions (such as gamma line sources), use the keyword
“discrete … end” to list the discrete abscissa values and use the
keyword “truePDF … end” to list the probabilities. The “biasedPDF …
end”, “trueCDF … end”, and “biasedCDF … end” keywords can also be used.
Each array should have the same length – the number of discrete lines.h]h/X}For discrete distributions (such as gamma line sources), use the keyword
“discrete … end” to list the discrete abscissa values and use the
keyword “truePDF … end” to list the probabilities. The “biasedPDF …
end”, “trueCDF … end”, and “biasedCDF … end” keywords can also be used.
Each array should have the same length – the number of discrete lines.}(hj?,h j=,hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j+hhubh;)}(hXTo visualize a distribution, add the keyword “runSampleTest” and a
\*.chart file will be produced showing the true pdf, the pdf used for
sampling (the biased pdf) and the results of a sampling test using
10\ :sup:`6` samples. The file will be named using the output name of
the SCALE job and the distribution identification number
‘\ *outputName*.dist\ *id*.chart’ and can be viewed with the ChartPlot
2D Interactive Plotter. To perform a sampling test and create a \*.chart
file for all of the distributions in the definitions block, use the
keyword “runSampleTests” inside the definitions block but outside any
particular distribution.h](h/To visualize a distribution, add the keyword “runSampleTest” and a
*.chart file will be produced showing the true pdf, the pdf used for
sampling (the biased pdf) and the results of a sampling test using
10 }(hTo visualize a distribution, add the keyword “runSampleTest” and a
\*.chart file will be produced showing the true pdf, the pdf used for
sampling (the biased pdf) and the results of a sampling test using
10\ h jK,hhh!NhNubj")}(h:sup:`6`h]h/6}(hhh jT,ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj"h jK,ubh/x samples. The file will be named using the output name of
the SCALE job and the distribution identification number
‘ }(hx samples. The file will be named using the output name of
the SCALE job and the distribution identification number
‘\ h jK,hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*outputName*h]h/
outputName}(hhh jg,ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jK,ubh/.dist }(h.dist\ h jK,hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh jz,ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jK,ubh/X.chart’ and can be viewed with the ChartPlot
2D Interactive Plotter. To perform a sampling test and create a *.chart
file for all of the distributions in the definitions block, use the
keyword “runSampleTests” inside the definitions block but outside any
particular distribution.}(hX.chart’ and can be viewed with the ChartPlot
2D Interactive Plotter. To perform a sampling test and create a \*.chart
file for all of the distributions in the definitions block, use the
keyword “runSampleTests” inside the definitions block but outside any
particular distribution.h jK,hhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j+hhubh;)}(hQSome example distribution inputs are listed below and shown in
:numref:`fig8-12`.h](h/?Some example distribution inputs are listed below and shown in
}(h?Some example distribution inputs are listed below and shown in
h j,hhh!NhNubj)}(h:numref:`fig8-12`h]j
)}(hj,h]h/fig8-12}(hhh j,ubah}(h]h](jstd
std-numrefeh]h]h]uhjh j,ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]refdocj refdomainj,reftypenumrefrefexplicitrefwarnj*fig8-12uhjh!h"hMh j,ubh/.}(hjh j,hhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j+hhubj)}(hXdistribution 11
title="a binned histogram"
abscissa -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 end
truePDF 1 2 3 4 5 4 3 2 2 2 end
end distribution
distribution 12
title="value/function pairs"
abscissa -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 end
truePDF 0 1 2 3 4 5 4 3 2 2 2 end
end distribution
distribution 21
title="a binned histogram with biasing"
abscissa -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 end
truePDF 1 2 3 4 5 4 3 2 2 2 end
biasedPDF 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 end
end distribution
distribution 22
title="value/function pairs with importances"
abscissa -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 end
truePDF 0 1 2 3 4 5 4 3 2 2 2 end
importance 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 end
end distribution
distribution 31
title="a binned histogram using CDF's"
abscissa -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 end
trueCDF 1 3 6 10 15 19 22 24 26 28 end
end distribution
distribution 32
title="a binned histogram with biasing using CDF's"
abscissa -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 end
trueCDF 1 3 6 10 15 19 22 24 26 28 end
biasedPDF 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 end
end distributionh]h/Xdistribution 11
title="a binned histogram"
abscissa -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 end
truePDF 1 2 3 4 5 4 3 2 2 2 end
end distribution
distribution 12
title="value/function pairs"
abscissa -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 end
truePDF 0 1 2 3 4 5 4 3 2 2 2 end
end distribution
distribution 21
title="a binned histogram with biasing"
abscissa -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 end
truePDF 1 2 3 4 5 4 3 2 2 2 end
biasedPDF 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 end
end distribution
distribution 22
title="value/function pairs with importances"
abscissa -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 end
truePDF 0 1 2 3 4 5 4 3 2 2 2 end
importance 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 end
end distribution
distribution 31
title="a binned histogram using CDF's"
abscissa -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 end
trueCDF 1 3 6 10 15 19 22 24 26 28 end
end distribution
distribution 32
title="a binned histogram with biasing using CDF's"
abscissa -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 end
trueCDF 1 3 6 10 15 19 22 24 26 28 end
biasedPDF 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 end
end distribution}(hhh j,ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjuhjh!h"hMh j+hhubh;)}(hOther notes on distributions:h]h/Other notes on distributions:}(hj,h j,hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM'h j+hhubj)}(hhh]j)}(hhh](j)}(hqBinned histogram distributions can also be specified using cdf’s
(keywords “trueCDF” and “biasedCDF”).
h]h;)}(hpBinned histogram distributions can also be specified using cdf’s
(keywords “trueCDF” and “biasedCDF”).h]h/pBinned histogram distributions can also be specified using cdf’s
(keywords “trueCDF” and “biasedCDF”).}(hj,h j,ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM)h j,ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j,ubj)}(h[For distributions that will be used for source energy sampling, use
abscissa values of eV.
h]h;)}(hZFor distributions that will be used for source energy sampling, use
abscissa values of eV.h]h/ZFor distributions that will be used for source energy sampling, use
abscissa values of eV.}(hj-h j-ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM,h j-ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j,ubj)}(hXFor multigroup calculations using histograms, the keywords
“neutronGroups” or “photonGroups” can be used instead of specifying
the abscissa values. In this case, be sure to list the binned pdf
values in order from the highest energy group to the lowest energy
group.
h]h;)}(hXFor multigroup calculations using histograms, the keywords
“neutronGroups” or “photonGroups” can be used instead of specifying
the abscissa values. In this case, be sure to list the binned pdf
values in order from the highest energy group to the lowest energy
group.h]h/XFor multigroup calculations using histograms, the keywords
“neutronGroups” or “photonGroups” can be used instead of specifying
the abscissa values. In this case, be sure to list the binned pdf
values in order from the highest energy group to the lowest energy
group.}(hj-h j-ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM/h j-ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j,ubj)}(hFor CE calculations, instead of specifying abscissa values, the bin
boundaries of an energyBounds object (see next section) can be
specified using “energyBoundsID=”.
h]h;)}(hFor CE calculations, instead of specifying abscissa values, the bin
boundaries of an energyBounds object (see next section) can be
specified using “energyBoundsID=”.h]h/For CE calculations, instead of specifying abscissa values, the bin
boundaries of an energyBounds object (see next section) can be
specified using “energyBoundsID=”.}(hj6-h j4-ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM5h j0-ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j,ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]jjjhj)uhjh j,ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j+hhh!NhNubh)}(h.. _fig8-12:h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hfig8-12uhh
hM9h j+hhh!h"ubj)}(hhh](j)}(hr.. figure:: figs/Monaco/8-12.png
:align: center
:width: 90 %
Sampling tests for the distribution examples.
h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]width90%urifigs/Monaco/8-12.pngj.}j0jp-suhjh j`-h!h"hM>ubj2)}(h-Sampling tests for the distribution examples.h]h/-Sampling tests for the distribution examples.}(hjt-h jr-ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj1h!h"hM>h j`-ubeh}(h](id34j_-eh]h]fig8-12ah]h]jicenteruhjhM>h j+hhh!h"j}j-jU-sj}j_-jU-subh;)}(hX.Several special (built-in) distributions are available in Monaco. To use
one of these, specify the keyword “special=” with a distribution name in
quotes and the keyword “parameters … end” (if required) for that type of
distribution. These special distributions are summarized in Table 8.2.8.h]h/X.Several special (built-in) distributions are available in Monaco. To use
one of these, specify the keyword “special=” with a distribution name in
quotes and the keyword “parameters … end” (if required) for that type of
distribution. These special distributions are summarized in Table 8.2.8.}(hj-h j-hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM@h j+hhubh;)}(hThe Watt spectrum has the formh]h/The Watt spectrum has the form}(hj-h j-hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMEh j+hhubh)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hequation-monaco-18uhh
h j+hhh!h"hNubj)}(h'p(E) = ce^{-E/a} \text{sinh}(\sqrt{bE})h]h/'p(E) = ce^{-E/a} \text{sinh}(\sqrt{bE})}(hhh j-ubah}(h]j-ah]h]h]h]docnamejnumberKlabel Monaco-18nowrapjjuhjh!h"hMGh j+hhj}j}j-j-subh;)}(hXwith the parameters *a* and *b* (with *c* as a normalization constant).
For spontaneous fission of :sup:`252`\ Cf, values typically used are
*a*\ =1.025 MeV and *b*\ =2.926/MeV. For thermal fission of
:sup:`235`\ U, the parameters are *a*\ =1.028 MeV and *b*\ =2.249/MeV.
For induced fission, the parameters *a* and *b* are, in general,
functions of incident neutron energy. See Table 8.2.9 for an example.
The Watt spectrum distribution will be displayed in the \*.chart plot as
a histogram distribution using the cross-section energy structure
neutron groups but when sampled in Monaco, the continuous Froehner and
Spencer\ :sup:`1` method is used to select an energy of source particles
using a Watt spectrum distribution.h](h/with the parameters }(hwith the parameters h j-hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*a*h]h/a}(hhh j-ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j-ubh/ and }(h and h j-hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*b*h]h/b}(hhh j-ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j-ubh/ (with }(h (with h j-hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*c*h]h/c}(hhh j-ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j-ubh/: as a normalization constant).
For spontaneous fission of }(h: as a normalization constant).
For spontaneous fission of h j-hhh!NhNubj")}(h
:sup:`252`h]h/252}(hhh j.ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj"h j-ubh/ Cf, values typically used are
}(h \ Cf, values typically used are
h j-hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*a*h]h/a}(hhh j.ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j-ubh/ =1.025 MeV and }(h\ =1.025 MeV and h j-hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*b*h]h/b}(hhh j..ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j-ubh/% =2.926/MeV. For thermal fission of
}(h%\ =2.926/MeV. For thermal fission of
h j-hhh!NhNubj")}(h
:sup:`235`h]h/235}(hhh jA.ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj"h j-ubh/ U, the parameters are }(h\ U, the parameters are h j-hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*a*h]h/a}(hhh jT.ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j-ubh/ =1.028 MeV and }(h\ =1.028 MeV and h j-hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*b*h]h/b}(hhh jg.ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j-ubh/2 =2.249/MeV.
For induced fission, the parameters }(h2\ =2.249/MeV.
For induced fission, the parameters h j-hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*a*h]h/a}(hhh jz.ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j-ubh/ and }(hj-h j-ubhA)}(h*b*h]h/b}(hhh j.ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j-ubh/X4 are, in general,
functions of incident neutron energy. See Table 8.2.9 for an example.
The Watt spectrum distribution will be displayed in the *.chart plot as
a histogram distribution using the cross-section energy structure
neutron groups but when sampled in Monaco, the continuous Froehner and
Spencer }(hX4 are, in general,
functions of incident neutron energy. See Table 8.2.9 for an example.
The Watt spectrum distribution will be displayed in the \*.chart plot as
a histogram distribution using the cross-section energy structure
neutron groups but when sampled in Monaco, the continuous Froehner and
Spencer\ h j-hhh!NhNubj")}(h:sup:`1`h]h/1}(hhh j.ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj"h j-ubh/[ method is used to select an energy of source particles
using a Watt spectrum distribution.}(h[ method is used to select an energy of source particles
using a Watt spectrum distribution.h j-hhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMLh j+hhubh;)}(hXwith the parameters *a* and *b* (with *c* as a normalization constant).
For spontaneous fission of :sup:`252`\ Cf, values typically used are
*a*\ =1.025 MeV and *b*\ =2.926/MeV. For thermal fission of
:sup:`235`\ U, the parameters are *a*\ =1.028 MeV and *b*\ =2.249/MeV.
For induced fission, the parameters *a* and *b* are, in general,
functions of incident neutron energy. See Table 8.2.9 for an example.
The Watt spectrum distribution will be displayed in the \*.chart plot as
a histogram distribution using the cross-section energy structure
neutron groups but when sampled in Monaco, the continuous Froehner and
Spencer\ :sup:`1` method is used to select an energy of source particles
using a Watt spectrum distribution.h](h/with the parameters }(hwith the parameters h j.hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*a*h]h/a}(hhh j.ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j.ubh/ and }(h and h j.hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*b*h]h/b}(hhh j.ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j.ubh/ (with }(h (with h j.hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*c*h]h/c}(hhh j.ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j.ubh/: as a normalization constant).
For spontaneous fission of }(h: as a normalization constant).
For spontaneous fission of h j.hhh!NhNubj")}(h
:sup:`252`h]h/252}(hhh j.ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj"h j.ubh/ Cf, values typically used are
}(h \ Cf, values typically used are
h j.hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*a*h]h/a}(hhh j
/ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j.ubh/ =1.025 MeV and }(h\ =1.025 MeV and h j.hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*b*h]h/b}(hhh j /ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j.ubh/% =2.926/MeV. For thermal fission of
}(h%\ =2.926/MeV. For thermal fission of
h j.hhh!NhNubj")}(h
:sup:`235`h]h/235}(hhh j3/ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj"h j.ubh/ U, the parameters are }(h\ U, the parameters are h j.hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*a*h]h/a}(hhh jF/ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j.ubh/ =1.028 MeV and }(h\ =1.028 MeV and h j.hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*b*h]h/b}(hhh jY/ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j.ubh/2 =2.249/MeV.
For induced fission, the parameters }(h2\ =2.249/MeV.
For induced fission, the parameters h j.hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*a*h]h/a}(hhh jl/ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j.ubh/ and }(hj.h j.ubhA)}(h*b*h]h/b}(hhh j~/ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j.ubh/X4 are, in general,
functions of incident neutron energy. See Table 8.2.9 for an example.
The Watt spectrum distribution will be displayed in the *.chart plot as
a histogram distribution using the cross-section energy structure
neutron groups but when sampled in Monaco, the continuous Froehner and
Spencer }(hX4 are, in general,
functions of incident neutron energy. See Table 8.2.9 for an example.
The Watt spectrum distribution will be displayed in the \*.chart plot as
a histogram distribution using the cross-section energy structure
neutron groups but when sampled in Monaco, the continuous Froehner and
Spencer\ h j.hhh!NhNubj")}(h:sup:`1`h]h/1}(hhh j/ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj"h j.ubh/[ method is used to select an energy of source particles
using a Watt spectrum distribution.}(h[ method is used to select an energy of source particles
using a Watt spectrum distribution.h j.hhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMXh j+hhubh)}(h.. _tab8-8:h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]htab8-8uhh
hMdh j+hhh!h"ubj)}(hhh](h))}(h Special (built-in) distributionsh]h/ Special (built-in) distributions}(hj/h j/ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h!h"hMeh j/ubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]colwidthKuhjh j/ubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]colwidthKuhjh j/ubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]colwidthKuhjh j/ubj)}(hhh]j)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h**Distribution**h]j)}(hj/h]h/Distribution}(hhh j/ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j/ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMih j/ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j/ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h**Parameters**h]j)}(hj0h]h/
Parameters}(hhh j0ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j0ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMih j
0ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j/ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h**Description**h]j)}(hj20h]h/Description}(hhh j40ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j00ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMih j-0ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j/ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j/ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j/ubj=)}(hhh](j)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h"wattSpectrum"h]h/“wattSpectrum”}(hjd0h jb0ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMkh j_0ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j\0ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h *a* *b n*h](hA)}(h*a*h]h/a}(hhh j}0ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jy0ubh/ }(hj](h jy0ubhA)}(h*b n*h]h/b n}(hhh j0ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jy0ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMkh jv0ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j\0ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(hXWatt spectrum
distribution. Units
are: *a* in MeV, *b*
in /MeV. Optional
parameter *n*
specifies how many
subintervals in each
neutron group to use
in integrating the
pdf (default 100) for
the histogram
representation in the
sampling test and
mesh source
representation.h](h/'Watt spectrum
distribution. Units
are: }(h'Watt spectrum
distribution. Units
are: h j0ubhA)}(h*a*h]h/a}(hhh j0ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j0ubh/ in MeV, }(h in MeV, h j0ubhA)}(h*b*h]h/b}(hhh j0ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j0ubh/
in /MeV. Optional
parameter }(h
in /MeV. Optional
parameter h j0ubhA)}(h*n*h]h/n}(hhh j0ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j0ubh/
specifies how many
subintervals in each
neutron group to use
in integrating the
pdf (default 100) for
the histogram
representation in the
sampling test and
mesh source
representation.}(h
specifies how many
subintervals in each
neutron group to use
in integrating the
pdf (default 100) for
the histogram
representation in the
sampling test and
mesh source
representation.Bh j0ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMkh j0ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j\0ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jY0ubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h"fissionNeutrons"h]h/“fissionNeutrons”}(hj1h j1ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM{h j1ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j1ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h*m ZAID*h]hA)}(hj1h]h/m ZAID}(hhh j!1ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j1ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM{h j1ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j1ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(hkSpectrum of fission
neutrons from the
MULTIGROUP
cross-section library
for material *m* and
nuclide *ZAID*.h](h/TSpectrum of fission
neutrons from the
MULTIGROUP
cross-section library
for material }(hTSpectrum of fission
neutrons from the
MULTIGROUP
cross-section library
for material h j=1ubhA)}(h*m*h]h/m}(hhh jF1ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j=1ubh/
and
nuclide }(h
and
nuclide h j=1ubhA)}(h*ZAID*h]h/ZAID}(hhh jY1ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j=1ubh/.}(hjh j=1ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM{h j:1ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j1ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jY0ubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h"fissionPhotons"h]h/“fissionPhotons”}(hj1h j1ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j1ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j}1ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h*ZAID*h]hA)}(hj1h]h/ZAID}(hhh j1ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j1ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j1ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j}1ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h0Spectrum of fission
photons from nuclide
*ZAID*.h](h/)Spectrum of fission
photons from nuclide
}(h)Spectrum of fission
photons from nuclide
h j1ubhA)}(h*ZAID*h]h/ZAID}(hhh j1ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j1ubh/.}(hjh j1ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j1ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j}1ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jY0ubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h!"origensBinaryConcent
rationFile"h]h/%“origensBinaryConcent
rationFile”}(hj1h j1ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j1ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j1ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h*c s*h]hA)}(hj2h]h/c s}(hhh j2ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j2ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j2ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j1ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(hXXSpectrum from an
ORIGEN-S binary
concentration file
case number *c*,
spectra type *s*.
For the spectra type
*s*, values are: 1 –
total neutron, 2 –
spontaneous fission,
3 – (α,n), and 4 –
delayed neutrons, 5 –
photons. The
ORIGEN-S filename
should be supplied
with the keyword
filename= “…” and the
path/filename in
quotes.h](h/@Spectrum from an
ORIGEN-S binary
concentration file
case number }(h@Spectrum from an
ORIGEN-S binary
concentration file
case number h j$2ubhA)}(h*c*h]h/c}(hhh j-2ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j$2ubh/,
spectra type }(h,
spectra type h j$2ubhA)}(h*s*h]h/s}(hhh j@2ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j$2ubh/.
For the spectra type
}(h.
For the spectra type
h j$2ubhA)}(h*s*h]h/s}(hhh jS2ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j$2ubh/, values are: 1 –
total neutron, 2 –
spontaneous fission,
3 – (α,n), and 4 –
delayed neutrons, 5 –
photons. The
ORIGEN-S filename
should be supplied
with the keyword
filename= “…” and the
path/filename in
quotes.}(h, values are: 1 –
total neutron, 2 –
spontaneous fission,
3 – (α,n), and 4 –
delayed neutrons, 5 –
photons. The
ORIGEN-S filename
should be supplied
with the keyword
filename= “…” and the
path/filename in
quotes.h j$2ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j!2ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j1ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jY0ubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h"cosine"h]h/“cosine”}(hj2h j~2ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j{2ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jx2ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h*n*h]hA)}(hj2h]h/n}(hhh j2ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j2ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j2ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jx2ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(hCosine function from
–π /2 to π/2.
Optional parameter
*n* (default 100) is
the number of
value/function pairs
to show in the
sampling test.h](h/:Cosine function from
–π /2 to π/2.
Optional parameter
}(h:Cosine function from
–π /2 to π/2.
Optional parameter
h j2ubhA)}(h*n*h]h/n}(hhh j2ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j2ubh/R (default 100) is
the number of
value/function pairs
to show in the
sampling test.}(hR (default 100) is
the number of
value/function pairs
to show in the
sampling test.h j2ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j2ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jx2ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jY0ubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h"pwrNeutronAxialProfi
le"h]h/“pwrNeutronAxialProfi
le”}(hj2h j2ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j2ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j2ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(hnoneh]h/none}(hj3h j3ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j2ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j2ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h"Typical neutron PWR
axial profile.h]h/"Typical neutron PWR
axial profile.}(hj3h j3ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j3ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j2ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jY0ubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h"pwrGammaAxialProfile"h]h/“pwrGammaAxialProfile”}(hj93h j73ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j43ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j13ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(hnoneh]h/none}(hjP3h jN3ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jK3ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j13ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h Typical gamma PWR
axial profile.h]h/ Typical gamma PWR
axial profile.}(hjg3h je3ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jb3ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j13ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jY0ubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h "pwrNeutronAxialProfi
leReverse"h]h/$“pwrNeutronAxialProfi
leReverse”}(hj3h j3ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j3ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j3ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(hnoneh]h/none}(hj3h j3ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j3ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j3ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h:Typical neutron PWR
axial profile,
reversed top to
bottom.h]h/:Typical neutron PWR
axial profile,
reversed top to
bottom.}(hj3h j3ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j3ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j3ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jY0ubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h"pwrGammaAxialProfile
Reverse"h]h/"“pwrGammaAxialProfile
Reverse”}(hj3h j3ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j3ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j3ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(hnoneh]h/none}(hj3h j3ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j3ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j3ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h8Typical gamma PWR
axial profile,
reversed top to
bottom.h]h/8Typical gamma PWR
axial profile,
reversed top to
bottom.}(hj4h j4ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j3ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j3ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jY0ubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h“exponential”h]h/“exponential”}(hj#4h j!4ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j4ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j4ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h*a n*h]hA)}(hj:4h]h/a n}(hhh j<4ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j84ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j54ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j4ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(hExponential function
*e\ ax* from -1 to 1.
Optional parameter
*n* (default 100) is
the number of
value/function pairs
to show in the
sampling test.h](h/Exponential function
}(hExponential function
h jX4ubhA)}(h*e\ ax*h]h/e ax}(hhh ja4ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jX4ubh/" from -1 to 1.
Optional parameter
}(h" from -1 to 1.
Optional parameter
h jX4ubhA)}(h*n*h]h/n}(hhh jt4ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jX4ubh/R (default 100) is
the number of
value/function pairs
to show in the
sampling test.}(hR (default 100) is
the number of
value/function pairs
to show in the
sampling test.h jX4ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jU4ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j4ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jY0ubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h“origensDiscreteGammas"h]h/“origensDiscreteGammas”}(hj4h j4ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j4ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j4ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h*z a m*h]hA)}(hj4h]h/z a m}(hhh j4ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j4ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j4ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j4ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(hDiscrete gammas from
the ORIGEN mpdkxgam
database for isotope
of atomic number *z*,
mass *a* and
metastable state *m*.
(default is m=0)h](h/ODiscrete gammas from
the ORIGEN mpdkxgam
database for isotope
of atomic number }(hODiscrete gammas from
the ORIGEN mpdkxgam
database for isotope
of atomic number h j4ubhA)}(h*z*h]h/z}(hhh j4ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j4ubh/,
mass }(h,
mass h j4ubhA)}(h*a*h]h/a}(hhh j4ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j4ubh/ and
metastable state }(h and
metastable state h j4ubhA)}(h*m*h]h/m}(hhh j5ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j4ubh/.
(default is m=0)}(h.
(default is m=0)h j4ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j4ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j4ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jY0ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj<h j/ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]colsKuhjh j/ubeh}(h](id35j/eh]h]tab8-8ah]h]jicenteruhjh j+hhh!h"hNj}j<5j/sj}j/j/subh;)}(hXFor the ORIGEN-S binary concentration sources, the ORIGEN input file
should be specified using the filename=“…” with the path/filename in
quotes. Note that the ORIGEN calculation has to be set to save the
neutron or photon data will be used as a Monaco distribution. This can
be done by specifying the number of photon or neutron groups on the 3$
(library integer constants) array and specifying the energy bin
boundaries on the 83\* and 84\* (group structure) arrays. In Monaco, to
show all of the cases in the binary concentration file, ask for case 0.
To show what data is available for a particular case, ask for that case
number and spectra type 0.h]h/XFor the ORIGEN-S binary concentration sources, the ORIGEN input file
should be specified using the filename=“…” with the path/filename in
quotes. Note that the ORIGEN calculation has to be set to save the
neutron or photon data will be used as a Monaco distribution. This can
be done by specifying the number of photon or neutron groups on the 3$
(library integer constants) array and specifying the energy bin
boundaries on the 83* and 84* (group structure) arrays. In Monaco, to
show all of the cases in the binary concentration file, ask for case 0.
To show what data is available for a particular case, ask for that case
number and spectra type 0.}(hXFor the ORIGEN-S binary concentration sources, the ORIGEN input file
should be specified using the filename=“…” with the path/filename in
quotes. Note that the ORIGEN calculation has to be set to save the
neutron or photon data will be used as a Monaco distribution. This can
be done by specifying the number of photon or neutron groups on the 3$
(library integer constants) array and specifying the energy bin
boundaries on the 83\* and 84\* (group structure) arrays. In Monaco, to
show all of the cases in the binary concentration file, ask for case 0.
To show what data is available for a particular case, ask for that case
number and spectra type 0.h jB5hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j+hhubh;)}(hXHOther notes on special distributions: 1) Fission neutron distributions
use MT=1018 for the specified ZAID of the specified isotope from the
cross-section library. 2) Fission photon distributions are not read from
the cross-section file but are instead read from a separate file
containing only ENDF/B-VII.0 fission photon data. 3) The neutron and
photon axial profile distributions come from the SCALE 5.1 SAS4 manual,
Table S4.4.5. 4) Fission neutron distributions are not allowed in the CE
problems, users are advised to use “wattSpectum” in order to get a
similar distribution.h]h/XHOther notes on special distributions: 1) Fission neutron distributions
use MT=1018 for the specified ZAID of the specified isotope from the
cross-section library. 2) Fission photon distributions are not read from
the cross-section file but are instead read from a separate file
containing only ENDF/B-VII.0 fission photon data. 3) The neutron and
photon axial profile distributions come from the SCALE 5.1 SAS4 manual,
Table S4.4.5. 4) Fission neutron distributions are not allowed in the CE
problems, users are advised to use “wattSpectum” in order to get a
similar distribution.}(hjS5h jQ5hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j+hhubj)}(hhh](h))}(hXWatt spectrum parameters for neutron induced fission of :sup:`233`\U (From ENDF/B-VII.0)h](h/8Watt spectrum parameters for neutron induced fission of }(h8Watt spectrum parameters for neutron induced fission of h jb5ubj")}(h
:sup:`233`h]h/233}(hhh jk5ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj"h jb5ubh/U (From ENDF/B-VII.0)}(h\U (From ENDF/B-VII.0)h jb5ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h!h"hMh j_5ubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]jiKduhjh j5ubj=)}(hhh]j)}(hhh]j)}(hhh]j)}(h0.. image:: figs/Monaco/tab8-9.png
:width: 300h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]width300urifigs/Monaco/tab8-9.pngj.}j0j5suhjh j5h!h"hKubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j5ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j5ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj<h j5ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]colsKuhjh j_5ubeh}(h]tab8-9ah]h]tab8-9ah]h]jicenteruhjh j+hhh!NhNubh;)}(hYSome example special distribution inputs are listed below and shown in
:numref:`fig8-13`.h](h/GSome example special distribution inputs are listed below and shown in
}(hGSome example special distribution inputs are listed below and shown in
h j5hhh!NhNubj)}(h:numref:`fig8-13`h]j
)}(hj5h]h/fig8-13}(hhh j5ubah}(h]h](jstd
std-numrefeh]h]h]uhjh j5ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]refdocj refdomainj5reftypenumrefrefexplicitrefwarnj*fig8-13uhjh!h"hMh j5ubh/.}(hjh j5hhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j+hhubj)}(hXdistribution 11
special="wattSpectrum"
parameters 1.0 3.0 end
end distribution
distribution 12
special="fissionNeutrons"
parameters 1 92235 end
end distribution
distribution 21
special="fissionPhotons"
parameters 94239 end
end distribution
distribution 22
special="origensBinaryConcentrationFile"
filename="c:\\path\somefile.f71"
parameters 9 5 end
end distribution
distribution 31
special="origensBinaryConcentrationFile"
filename="c:\\path\somefile.f71"
parameters 9 1 end
end distribution
distribution 32
special="cosine"
parameters 100 end
end distribution
distribution 41
special="pwrNeutronAxialProfile"
end distribution
distribution 42
special="exponential"
parameters 1.0 100 end
end distributionh]h/Xdistribution 11
special="wattSpectrum"
parameters 1.0 3.0 end
end distribution
distribution 12
special="fissionNeutrons"
parameters 1 92235 end
end distribution
distribution 21
special="fissionPhotons"
parameters 94239 end
end distribution
distribution 22
special="origensBinaryConcentrationFile"
filename="c:\\path\somefile.f71"
parameters 9 5 end
end distribution
distribution 31
special="origensBinaryConcentrationFile"
filename="c:\\path\somefile.f71"
parameters 9 1 end
end distribution
distribution 32
special="cosine"
parameters 100 end
end distribution
distribution 41
special="pwrNeutronAxialProfile"
end distribution
distribution 42
special="exponential"
parameters 1.0 100 end
end distribution}(hhh j5ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjuhjh!h"hMh j+hhubh)}(h.. _fig8-13:h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hfig8-13uhh
hM h j+hhh!h"ubj)}(hhh](j)}(hv.. figure:: figs/Monaco/8-13.png
:align: center
Sampling tests for the special (built-in) distribution examples.
h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]urifigs/Monaco/8-13.pngj.}j0j$6suhjh j6h!h"hM
ubj2)}(h@Sampling tests for the special (built-in) distribution examples.h]h/@Sampling tests for the special (built-in) distribution examples.}(hj(6h j&6ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj1h!h"hM
h j6ubeh}(h](id36j6eh]h]fig8-13ah]h]jicenteruhjhM
h j+hhh!h"j}j96j6sj}j6j6subeh}(h]id5ah]h]h]jah]uhh#h jhhh!h"hMjKubh$)}(hhh](h))}(hEnergy boundariesh]h/Energy boundaries}(hjK6h jI6hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h jF6hhh!h"hMubh;)}(hXMEnergy boundaries (“energyBounds”) require an identification number and
a specification of a set of bin boundaries in energy (eV). Energy bounds
objects are typically used in CE calculations for specifying and energy
grid for tallies. The keyword “bounds … end” can be used to list energy
values (in eV, in any order). The keyword “linear *n* *a* *b*\ ” can be
used to specify *n* bins between *a* and *b*. Likewise, the keyword
“logarithmic *n a b*\ ” can be used for :math:`n` bins logarithmically
spaced between *a* and *b*. The keywords “bounds”, “linear” and
“logarithmic” can be used together and multiple times – they will simply
add energy boundaries to any already defined. Any duplicate planes will
be removed using the absolute tolerance, specified with the keyword
“tolerance=”. To specify one of the more common SCALE energy structures
(handy for doing tallies one a standard structure in CE calculations),
one of the following shortcut keywords can be used: “252n”, “238n”,
“200n”, “56n”, “47p”, “44n”, “27n”, or “19p”.h](h/X_Energy boundaries (“energyBounds”) require an identification number and
a specification of a set of bin boundaries in energy (eV). Energy bounds
objects are typically used in CE calculations for specifying and energy
grid for tallies. The keyword “bounds … end” can be used to list energy
values (in eV, in any order). The keyword “linear }(hX_Energy boundaries (“energyBounds”) require an identification number and
a specification of a set of bin boundaries in energy (eV). Energy bounds
objects are typically used in CE calculations for specifying and energy
grid for tallies. The keyword “bounds … end” can be used to list energy
values (in eV, in any order). The keyword “linear h jW6hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*n*h]h/n}(hhh j`6ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jW6ubh/ }(hj](h jW6hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*a*h]h/a}(hhh jr6ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jW6ubh/ }(hj](h jW6ubhA)}(h*b*h]h/b}(hhh j6ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jW6ubh/ ” can be
used to specify }(h\ ” can be
used to specify h jW6hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*n*h]h/n}(hhh j6ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jW6ubh/ bins between }(h bins between h jW6hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*a*h]h/a}(hhh j6ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jW6ubh/ and }(h and h jW6hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*b*h]h/b}(hhh j6ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jW6ubh/'. Likewise, the keyword
“logarithmic }(h'. Likewise, the keyword
“logarithmic h jW6hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*n a b*h]h/n a b}(hhh j6ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jW6ubh/ ” can be used for }(h\ ” can be used for h jW6hhh!NhNubh)}(h :math:`n`h]h/n}(hhh j6ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jW6ubh/% bins logarithmically
spaced between }(h% bins logarithmically
spaced between h jW6hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*a*h]h/a}(hhh j6ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jW6ubh/ and }(hj6h jW6ubhA)}(h*b*h]h/b}(hhh j7ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jW6ubh/X-. The keywords “bounds”, “linear” and
“logarithmic” can be used together and multiple times – they will simply
add energy boundaries to any already defined. Any duplicate planes will
be removed using the absolute tolerance, specified with the keyword
“tolerance=”. To specify one of the more common SCALE energy structures
(handy for doing tallies one a standard structure in CE calculations),
one of the following shortcut keywords can be used: “252n”, “238n”,
“200n”, “56n”, “47p”, “44n”, “27n”, or “19p”.}(hX-. The keywords “bounds”, “linear” and
“logarithmic” can be used together and multiple times – they will simply
add energy boundaries to any already defined. Any duplicate planes will
be removed using the absolute tolerance, specified with the keyword
“tolerance=”. To specify one of the more common SCALE energy structures
(handy for doing tallies one a standard structure in CE calculations),
one of the following shortcut keywords can be used: “252n”, “238n”,
“200n”, “56n”, “47p”, “44n”, “27n”, or “19p”.h jW6hhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jF6hhubh;)}(hXaThese keywords will cause to load the energy structures from the MG
cross-section libraries aliased in the “FileNameAliases.txt” with names
of “xn252”, “xn238”, “xn200”, “xn56”, “xg47”, “xn44”, “xn27”, and “xg19”
relatively. If required energy structure is for neutrons and there is no
alias for MG cross-section library or the library is missing, MG JEFF
reaction data library will be searched as “n{NG}.reaction.data” to load
the energy structure. These can be used in combination with the other
keywords to use existing structures supplemented with extra boundaries.h]h/XaThese keywords will cause to load the energy structures from the MG
cross-section libraries aliased in the “FileNameAliases.txt” with names
of “xn252”, “xn238”, “xn200”, “xn56”, “xg47”, “xn44”, “xn27”, and “xg19”
relatively. If required energy structure is for neutrons and there is no
alias for MG cross-section library or the library is missing, MG JEFF
reaction data library will be searched as “n{NG}.reaction.data” to load
the energy structure. These can be used in combination with the other
keywords to use existing structures supplemented with extra boundaries.}(hj#7h j!7hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM"h jF6hhubj)}(hXfenergyBounds 1
title="bounds command, check for duplicates"
bounds 1 4 2 3 5 end
bounds 7 6 10 5 9 8 7 end
end energyBounds
energyBounds 3
title="logarithmic command"
logarithmic 21 1.0 10000000.0
end energyBounds
energyBounds 11
title="SCALE 19 group photon structure with extras"
19p
linear 10 6.0e6 7.0e6
end energyBoundsh]h/XfenergyBounds 1
title="bounds command, check for duplicates"
bounds 1 4 2 3 5 end
bounds 7 6 10 5 9 8 7 end
end energyBounds
energyBounds 3
title="logarithmic command"
logarithmic 21 1.0 10000000.0
end energyBounds
energyBounds 11
title="SCALE 19 group photon structure with extras"
19p
linear 10 6.0e6 7.0e6
end energyBounds}(hhh j/7ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjuhjh!h"hM-h jF6hhubh;)}(hX4An energyBounds object can also be used to set the energy bin boundaries
for a response (type1) instead of using the “bounds … end” keyword. This
is done by using with the keyword “energyBoundsID=” and referencing a
defined energyBounds object. Likewise for distributions, instead of
specifying the “abscissa … end” keyword and listing abscissa values, an
energyBounds object can be used. This allows the user to define a set of
energy bin boundaries once and re-use them across multiple responses and
definitions. When using the “energyBoundsID=” keyword, the data values
should be entered in the standard multigroup order – from high energy to
low energy. For a stand-alone multigroup Monaco calculation, do not use
ID numbers of 1 or 2 for energyBounds objects – these ID numbers are
reserved.h]h/X4An energyBounds object can also be used to set the energy bin boundaries
for a response (type1) instead of using the “bounds … end” keyword. This
is done by using with the keyword “energyBoundsID=” and referencing a
defined energyBounds object. Likewise for distributions, instead of
specifying the “abscissa … end” keyword and listing abscissa values, an
energyBounds object can be used. This allows the user to define a set of
energy bin boundaries once and re-use them across multiple responses and
definitions. When using the “energyBoundsID=” keyword, the data values
should be entered in the standard multigroup order – from high energy to
low energy. For a stand-alone multigroup Monaco calculation, do not use
ID numbers of 1 or 2 for energyBounds objects – these ID numbers are
reserved.}(hj?7h j=7hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM<h jF6hhubeh}(h]energy-boundariesah]h]energy boundariesah]h]uhh#h jhhh!h"hMubh$)}(hhh](h))}(hTime boundariesh]h/Time boundaries}(hjX7h jV7hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h jS7hhh!h"hMJubh;)}(hTime boundaries (“timeBounds”) are similar to energy bin boundaries but
take values in seconds. These objects are only used in tallies in CE
calculations.h]h/Time boundaries (“timeBounds”) are similar to energy bin boundaries but
take values in seconds. These objects are only used in tallies in CE
calculations.}(hjf7h jd7hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMLh jS7hhubj)}(htimeBounds 2
title="linear command"
linear 10 0.0 10.0e-3
end timeBounds
timeBounds 7
title="logarithmic command"
logarithmic 6 1.0e-6 1.0
end timeBoundsh]h/timeBounds 2
title="linear command"
linear 10 0.0 10.0e-3
end timeBounds
timeBounds 7
title="logarithmic command"
logarithmic 6 1.0e-6 1.0
end timeBounds}(hhh jr7ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjuhjh!h"hMRh jS7hhubeh}(h]time-boundariesah]h]time boundariesah]h]uhh#h jhhh!h"hMJubeh}(h]definitions-blockah]h]definitions blockah]h]uhh#h jBhhh!h"hMubh$)}(hhh](h))}(h
Sources blockh]h/
Sources block}(hj7h j7hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h j7hhh!h"hM\ubh;)}(hXlThe sources block specifies what sources to use. Multiple sources are
allowed and each is sampled according to its strength, relative to the
total strength of all sources. Each source description must be contained
with a “src *id*\ ” and an “end src” (where the *id* is the source
identification number). The sources block must contain at least one
source.h](h/The sources block specifies what sources to use. Multiple sources are
allowed and each is sampled according to its strength, relative to the
total strength of all sources. Each source description must be contained
with a “src }(hThe sources block specifies what sources to use. Multiple sources are
allowed and each is sampled according to its strength, relative to the
total strength of all sources. Each source description must be contained
with a “src h j7hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh j7ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j7ubh/& ” and an “end src” (where the }(h&\ ” and an “end src” (where the h j7hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh j7ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j7ubh/Z is the source
identification number). The sources block must contain at least one
source.}(hZ is the source
identification number). The sources block must contain at least one
source.h j7hhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM^h j7hhubh;)}(hXFor each user-defined source, the user can specify the spatial
distribution, the energy distribution and the directional distribution
separately. Many options for each distribution are available and
defaults are used for most if the user does not specify anything. The
source strength is set using the keyword “strength=” and the type of
source is set using the keyword “neutron” or “photon”. The “strength=”
keyword is required for each source.h]h/XFor each user-defined source, the user can specify the spatial
distribution, the energy distribution and the directional distribution
separately. Many options for each distribution are available and
defaults are used for most if the user does not specify anything. The
source strength is set using the keyword “strength=” and the type of
source is set using the keyword “neutron” or “photon”. The “strength=”
keyword is required for each source.}(hj7h j7hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMeh j7hhubh;)}(hXpWhen using more than one source, the user can set the true strength of
each using the keyword “strength=” and can also specify how often to
sample each source using the keyword “biasedStrength=”. The true
strengths of the sources will be combined to form the true source
distribution PDF. The biased strengths of sources will be combined to
form a PDF from which to sample. The weights of the source particles
will be properly weighted to account for the biased sampling strengths.
For example, consider two sources of strengths 10\ :sup:`9` and
9×10\ :sup:`9` /sec that should be sampled in a ratio of 4:1. The biased
sampling strengths are then set to 4 and 1. Monaco will sample the first
source 80% of the time and the particles will be born with a weight of
0.125. The second source will be sampled 20% of the time and its
particles will be born with weights of 4.5.h](h/XWhen using more than one source, the user can set the true strength of
each using the keyword “strength=” and can also specify how often to
sample each source using the keyword “biasedStrength=”. The true
strengths of the sources will be combined to form the true source
distribution PDF. The biased strengths of sources will be combined to
form a PDF from which to sample. The weights of the source particles
will be properly weighted to account for the biased sampling strengths.
For example, consider two sources of strengths 10 }(hXWhen using more than one source, the user can set the true strength of
each using the keyword “strength=” and can also specify how often to
sample each source using the keyword “biasedStrength=”. The true
strengths of the sources will be combined to form the true source
distribution PDF. The biased strengths of sources will be combined to
form a PDF from which to sample. The weights of the source particles
will be properly weighted to account for the biased sampling strengths.
For example, consider two sources of strengths 10\ h j7hhh!NhNubj")}(h:sup:`9`h]h/9}(hhh j7ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj"h j7ubh/ and
9×10 }(h and
9×10\ h j7hhh!NhNubj")}(h:sup:`9`h]h/9}(hhh j8ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj"h j7ubh/X7 /sec that should be sampled in a ratio of 4:1. The biased
sampling strengths are then set to 4 and 1. Monaco will sample the first
source 80% of the time and the particles will be born with a weight of
0.125. The second source will be sampled 20% of the time and its
particles will be born with weights of 4.5.}(hX7 /sec that should be sampled in a ratio of 4:1. The biased
sampling strengths are then set to 4 and 1. Monaco will sample the first
source 80% of the time and the particles will be born with a weight of
0.125. The second source will be sampled 20% of the time and its
particles will be born with weights of 4.5.h j7hhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMmh j7hhubh$)}(hhh](h))}(hSpatial distributionh]h/Spatial distribution}(hj8h j8hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h j8hhh!h"hM|ubj)}(hhh]j)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]colwidthKuhjh j-8ubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]colwidthKauhjh j-8ubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]colwidthK7uhjh j-8ubj)}(hhh]j)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(hKeywordh]h/Keyword}(hjY8h jW8ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jT8ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jQ8ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h
Parametersh]h/
Parameters}(hjp8h jn8ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jk8ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jQ8ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(hPossible degenerate casesh]h/Possible degenerate cases}(hj8h j8ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j8ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jQ8ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jN8ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j-8ubj=)}(hhh](j)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(hcuboidh]h/cuboid}(hj8h j8ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j8ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j8ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h_:math:`x_{max}` :math:`x_{min}` :math:`y_{max}` :math:`y_{min}` :math:`z_{max}` :math:`z_{min}`h](h)}(h:math:`x_{max}`h]h/x_{max}}(hhh j8ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh j8ubh/ }(hj](h j8ubh)}(h:math:`x_{min}`h]h/x_{min}}(hhh j8ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh j8ubh/ }(hj](h j8ubh)}(h:math:`y_{max}`h]h/y_{max}}(hhh j8ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh j8ubh/ }(hj](h j8ubh)}(h:math:`y_{min}`h]h/y_{min}}(hhh j8ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh j8ubh/ }(hj](h j8ubh)}(h:math:`z_{max}`h]h/z_{max}}(hhh j9ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh j8ubh/ }(hj](h j8ubh)}(h:math:`z_{min}`h]h/z_{min}}(hhh j#9ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh j8ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j8ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j8ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(hrectangular plane, line, pointh]h/rectangular plane, line, point}(hjB9h j@9ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j=9ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j8ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j8ubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h xCylinderh]h/ xCylinder}(hjb9h j`9ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j]9ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jZ9ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h#*r* :math:`x_{max}` :math:`x_{min}`h](hA)}(h*r*h]h/r}(hhh j{9ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jw9ubh/ }(hj](h jw9ubh)}(h:math:`x_{max}`h]h/x_{max}}(hhh j9ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jw9ubh/ }(hj](h jw9ubh)}(h:math:`x_{min}`h]h/x_{min}}(hhh j9ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jw9ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jt9ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jZ9ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(hcircular plane, line, pointh]h/circular plane, line, point}(hj9h j9ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j9ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jZ9ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j8ubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h yCylinderh]h/ yCylinder}(hj9h j9ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j9ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j9ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h#*r* :math:`y_{max}` :math:`y_{min}`h](hA)}(h*r*h]h/r}(hhh j9ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j9ubh/ }(hj](h j9ubh)}(h:math:`y_{max}`h]h/y_{max}}(hhh j :ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh j9ubh/ }(hj](h j9ubh)}(h:math:`y_{min}`h]h/y_{min}}(hhh j:ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh j9ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j9ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j9ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(hcircular plane, line, pointh]h/circular plane, line, point}(hj::h j8:ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j5:ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j9ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j8ubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h zCylinderh]h/ zCylinder}(hjZ:h jX:ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jU:ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jR:ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h#*r* :math:`z_{max}` :math:`z_{min}`h](hA)}(h*r*h]h/r}(hhh js:ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jo:ubh/ }(hj](h jo:ubh)}(h:math:`z_{max}`h]h/z_{max}}(hhh j:ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jo:ubh/ }(hj](h jo:ubh)}(h:math:`z_{min}`h]h/z_{min}}(hhh j:ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jo:ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jl:ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jR:ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(hcircular plane, line, pointh]h/circular plane, line, point}(hj:h j:ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j:ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jR:ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j8ubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(hxShellCylinderh]h/xShellCylinder}(hj:h j:ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j:ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j:ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h)*r1* *r2* :math:`x_{max}` :math:`x_{min}`h](hA)}(h*r1*h]h/r1}(hhh j:ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j:ubh/ }(hj](h j:ubhA)}(h*r2*h]h/r2}(hhh j;ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j:ubh/ }(hj](h j:ubh)}(h:math:`x_{max}`h]h/x_{max}}(hhh j;ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh j:ubh/ }(hj](h j:ubh)}(h:math:`x_{min}`h]h/x_{min}}(hhh j%;ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh j:ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j:ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j:ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h5cyl., planar annulus, cyl. surface, line, ring, pointh]h/5cyl., planar annulus, cyl. surface, line, ring, point}(hjD;h jB;ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j?;ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j:ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j8ubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(hyShellCylinderh]h/yShellCylinder}(hjd;h jb;ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j_;ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j\;ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h)*r1* *r2* :math:`y_{max}` :math:`y_{min}`h](hA)}(h*r1*h]h/r1}(hhh j};ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jy;ubh/ }(hj](h jy;ubhA)}(h*r2*h]h/r2}(hhh j;ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jy;ubh/ }(hj](h jy;ubh)}(h:math:`y_{max}`h]h/y_{max}}(hhh j;ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jy;ubh/ }(hj](h jy;ubh)}(h:math:`y_{min}`h]h/y_{min}}(hhh j;ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jy;ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jv;ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j\;ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h5cyl., planar annulus, cyl. surface, line, ring, pointh]h/5cyl., planar annulus, cyl. surface, line, ring, point}(hj;h j;ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j;ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j\;ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j8ubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(hzShellCylinderh]h/zShellCylinder}(hj;h j;ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j;ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j;ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h)*r1* *r2* :math:`z_{max}` :math:`z_{min}`h](hA)}(h*r1*h]h/r1}(hhh j<ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j<ubh/ }(hj](h j<ubhA)}(h*r2*h]h/r2}(hhh j<ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j<ubh/ }(hj](h j<ubh)}(h:math:`z_{max}`h]h/z_{max}}(hhh j/<ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh j<ubh/ }(hj](h j<ubh)}(h:math:`z_{min}`h]h/z_{min}}(hhh jA<ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh j<ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j<ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j;ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h5cyl., planar annulus, cyl. surface, line, ring, pointh]h/5cyl., planar annulus, cyl. surface, line, ring, point}(hj`<h j^<ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j[<ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j;ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j8ubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(hsphereh]h/sphere}(hj<h j~<ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j{<ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jx<ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h*r*h]hA)}(hj<h]h/r}(hhh j<ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j<ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j<ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jx<ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(hpointh]h/point}(hj<h j<ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j<ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jx<ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j8ubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(hshellSphereh]h/shellSphere}(hj<h j<ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j<ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j<ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h *r1* *r2*h](hA)}(h*r1*h]h/r1}(hhh j<ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j<ubh/ }(hj](h j<ubhA)}(h*r2*h]h/r2}(hhh j=ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j<ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j<ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j<ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h sphere, spherical surface, pointh]h/ sphere, spherical surface, point}(hj!=h j=ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j=ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j<ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j8ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj<h j-8ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]colsKuhjh j*8ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jijjuhjh j8hhh!h"hNubh;)}(hXNote that other than the shell-type solids, the parameters are the same
as the SGGP geometry specification of those solids. The SGGP keyword
“origin” (followed by at least one of “x=”, “y=”, and/or“z=”) is
available for all of the different source solid bodies. For the cylinder
based solid bodies, the direction of the axis of the cylinder can be set
by using the keyword “cylinderAxis *u* *v* *w*\ ”, where *u*, *v*, and
*w* are the direction cosines with respect to the global *x*-, *y*-, and
*z*-directions.h](h/XNote that other than the shell-type solids, the parameters are the same
as the SGGP geometry specification of those solids. The SGGP keyword
“origin” (followed by at least one of “x=”, “y=”, and/or“z=”) is
available for all of the different source solid bodies. For the cylinder
based solid bodies, the direction of the axis of the cylinder can be set
by using the keyword “cylinderAxis }(hXNote that other than the shell-type solids, the parameters are the same
as the SGGP geometry specification of those solids. The SGGP keyword
“origin” (followed by at least one of “x=”, “y=”, and/or“z=”) is
available for all of the different source solid bodies. For the cylinder
based solid bodies, the direction of the axis of the cylinder can be set
by using the keyword “cylinderAxis h jL=hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*u*h]h/u}(hhh jU=ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jL=ubh/ }(hj](h jL=hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*v*h]h/v}(hhh jg=ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jL=ubh/ }(hj](h jL=ubhA)}(h*w*h]h/w}(hhh jy=ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jL=ubh/
”, where }(h
\ ”, where h jL=hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*u*h]h/u}(hhh j=ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jL=ubh/, }(h, h jL=hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*v*h]h/v}(hhh j=ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jL=ubh/, and
}(h, and
h jL=hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*w*h]h/w}(hhh j=ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jL=ubh/6 are the direction cosines with respect to the global }(h6 are the direction cosines with respect to the global h jL=hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*x*h]h/x}(hhh j=ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jL=ubh/-, }(h-, h jL=hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*y*h]h/y}(hhh j=ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jL=ubh/-, and
}(h-, and
h jL=hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*z*h]h/z}(hhh j=ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jL=ubh/-directions.}(h-directions.h jL=hhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j8hhubh;)}(hXYThe source can be limited to only be from the parts of the solid body
that are inside a specific unit (“unit=”), inside a specific region
(“region=”) within the specified unit, or made of a certain material
(“mixture=”). A mixture and a unit/region cannot both be specified since
that would either be redundant or mutually exclusive.h]h/XYThe source can be limited to only be from the parts of the solid body
that are inside a specific unit (“unit=”), inside a specific region
(“region=”) within the specified unit, or made of a certain material
(“mixture=”). A mixture and a unit/region cannot both be specified since
that would either be redundant or mutually exclusive.}(hj>h j>hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j8hhubh;)}(hXFIf no source spatial information is provided by the user, the default is
a point source located at the origin (in global coordinates). Like SGGP
input, the geometry keywords used for the bounding shape are fixed
lengths arrays and do not have an “end” terminator. They must be
followed by the correct number of parameters.h]h/XFIf no source spatial information is provided by the user, the default is
a point source located at the origin (in global coordinates). Like SGGP
input, the geometry keywords used for the bounding shape are fixed
lengths arrays and do not have an “end” terminator. They must be
followed by the correct number of parameters.}(hj>h j>hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j8hhubh;)}(hXyThe spatial distribution in each dimension of the cuboid shape is
specified by using the keywords “xDistributionID=”, “yDistributionID=”,
or “zDistributionID=” and pointing to a distribution defined in the
definitions block. For the cylindrical shapes, “rDistributionID=” and
“zDistributionID=” can be used. For spherical shapes, only the
“rDistributionID=” can be specified. Distributions defined using
abscissa values that are different than the length of the simple
geometry bounding shape can still be used if the keyword “xScaleDist”
(or “y”, “z”, or “r”) is used. This linearly scales the distribution
abscissa values to the length of the simple geometry bounding shape.
Note that for cylindrical sources, since the axis can point in any
direction, the z distribution is interpreted as the length along the
axis, with the base position as z=0.h]h/XyThe spatial distribution in each dimension of the cuboid shape is
specified by using the keywords “xDistributionID=”, “yDistributionID=”,
or “zDistributionID=” and pointing to a distribution defined in the
definitions block. For the cylindrical shapes, “rDistributionID=” and
“zDistributionID=” can be used. For spherical shapes, only the
“rDistributionID=” can be specified. Distributions defined using
abscissa values that are different than the length of the simple
geometry bounding shape can still be used if the keyword “xScaleDist”
(or “y”, “z”, or “r”) is used. This linearly scales the distribution
abscissa values to the length of the simple geometry bounding shape.
Note that for cylindrical sources, since the axis can point in any
direction, the z distribution is interpreted as the length along the
axis, with the base position as z=0.}(hj">h j >hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j8hhubeh}(h]spatial-distributionah]h]spatial distributionah]h]uhh#h j7hhh!h"hM|ubh$)}(hhh](h))}(hEnergy distributionh]h/Energy distribution}(hj;>h j9>hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h j6>hhh!h"hMubh;)}(hX“eDistributionID=” and pointing to one of the distributions defined in
the definitions block. Energies will be sampled from the distribution in
a continuous manner. For MULTIGROUP calculations, that energy will then
be mapped onto the group structure of the cross-section library being
used by Monaco. Each source should have an energy distribution that has
abscissa values in units of eV. If no energy distribution is given, 1
MeV (translated to the current group structure if a multigroup problem)
will be used.h]h/X“eDistributionID=” and pointing to one of the distributions defined in
the definitions block. Energies will be sampled from the distribution in
a continuous manner. For MULTIGROUP calculations, that energy will then
be mapped onto the group structure of the cross-section library being
used by Monaco. Each source should have an energy distribution that has
abscissa values in units of eV. If no energy distribution is given, 1
MeV (translated to the current group structure if a multigroup problem)
will be used.}(hjI>h jG>hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j6>hhubh;)}(hXTo use the total of an energy distribution as the source strength, use
the keyword “useNormConst” without either “strength=” or “fissions=”.
This will set the strength to be equal to the normalization constant of
the distribution – the total of the distribution before it was
normalized into a pdf. An optional “multiplier=” keyword can be used to
increase or decrease that strength. For example, consider a case using
the neutron spectrum information from a case of an ORIGEN-S binary
concentration file that used a basis of an entire core. If the Monaco
source was just one of the 200 assemblies, then the “multiplier=”
keyword can be set to 0.005 so that the source strength is scaled
appropriately.h]h/XTo use the total of an energy distribution as the source strength, use
the keyword “useNormConst” without either “strength=” or “fissions=”.
This will set the strength to be equal to the normalization constant of
the distribution – the total of the distribution before it was
normalized into a pdf. An optional “multiplier=” keyword can be used to
increase or decrease that strength. For example, consider a case using
the neutron spectrum information from a case of an ORIGEN-S binary
concentration file that used a basis of an entire core. If the Monaco
source was just one of the 200 assemblies, then the “multiplier=”
keyword can be set to 0.005 so that the source strength is scaled
appropriately.}(hjW>h jU>hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j6>hhubeh}(h]energy-distributionah]h]energy distributionah]h]uhh#h j7hhh!h"hMubh$)}(hhh](h))}(hDirectional distributionh]h/Directional distribution}(hjp>h jn>hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h jk>hhh!h"hMubh;)}(hXrThe directional distribution of the source is specified by using the
keyword “dDistributionID=” and pointing to one of the distributions
defined in the definitions block. The distribution will be used to
sample the cosine of the polar angle, :math:`\mu`, from the reference
direction. The reference direction, where :math:`\mu = 1`, is set with
the keyword “direction *u* *v* *w*\ ”, where *u*, *v*, and *w* are the
direction cosines with respect to the global *x*-, *y*-, and
*z*-directions. The default value for the reference direction is the
positive *z*-axis (<0,0,1>). The keyword “dScaleDist” can be used to
linearly scale the distribution abscissa values to the range of
:math:`\mu \in \left\lbrack - 1,1 \right\rbrack`. If no directional
distribution is specified with the keyword “dDistributionID=”, then an
isotropic directional distribution will be used.h](h/The directional distribution of the source is specified by using the
keyword “dDistributionID=” and pointing to one of the distributions
defined in the definitions block. The distribution will be used to
sample the cosine of the polar angle, }(hThe directional distribution of the source is specified by using the
keyword “dDistributionID=” and pointing to one of the distributions
defined in the definitions block. The distribution will be used to
sample the cosine of the polar angle, h j|>hhh!NhNubh)}(h:math:`\mu`h]h/\mu}(hhh j>ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh j|>ubh/?, from the reference
direction. The reference direction, where }(h?, from the reference
direction. The reference direction, where h j|>hhh!NhNubh)}(h:math:`\mu = 1`h]h/\mu = 1}(hhh j>ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh j|>ubh/', is set with
the keyword “direction }(h', is set with
the keyword “direction h j|>hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*u*h]h/u}(hhh j>ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j|>ubh/ }(hj](h j|>hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*v*h]h/v}(hhh j>ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j|>ubh/ }(hj](h j|>ubhA)}(h*w*h]h/w}(hhh j>ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j|>ubh/
”, where }(h
\ ”, where h j|>hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*u*h]h/u}(hhh j>ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j|>ubh/, }(h, h j|>hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*v*h]h/v}(hhh j>ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j|>ubh/, and }(h, and h j|>hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*w*h]h/w}(hhh j?ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j|>ubh/6 are the
direction cosines with respect to the global }(h6 are the
direction cosines with respect to the global h j|>hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*x*h]h/x}(hhh j?ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j|>ubh/-, }(h-, h j|>hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*y*h]h/y}(hhh j.?ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j|>ubh/-, and
}(h-, and
h j|>hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*z*h]h/z}(hhh jA?ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j|>ubh/K-directions. The default value for the reference direction is the
positive }(hK-directions. The default value for the reference direction is the
positive h j|>hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*z*h]h/z}(hhh jT?ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j|>ubh/}-axis (<0,0,1>). The keyword “dScaleDist” can be used to
linearly scale the distribution abscissa values to the range of
}(h}-axis (<0,0,1>). The keyword “dScaleDist” can be used to
linearly scale the distribution abscissa values to the range of
h j|>hhh!NhNubh)}(h0:math:`\mu \in \left\lbrack - 1,1 \right\rbrack`h]h/(\mu \in \left\lbrack - 1,1 \right\rbrack}(hhh jg?ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh j|>ubh/. If no directional
distribution is specified with the keyword “dDistributionID=”, then an
isotropic directional distribution will be used.}(h. If no directional
distribution is specified with the keyword “dDistributionID=”, then an
isotropic directional distribution will be used.h j|>hhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jk>hhubeh}(h]directional-distributionah]h]directional distributionah]h]uhh#h j7hhh!h"hMubh$)}(hhh](h))}(h#Using a Monaco mesh source map fileh]h/#Using a Monaco mesh source map file}(hj?h j?hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h j?hhh!h"hMubh;)}(hXkThe user can alternatively specify an existing Monaco mesh source map
file—a binary file created by a previous MAVRIC or Monaco calculation.
The mesh source map must be a binary file using the Monaco mesh source
map format (a \*.msm file). This option is specified with the
“meshSourceFile=” keyword and the file name (and full path if necessary)
in quotes.h]h/XkThe user can alternatively specify an existing Monaco mesh source map
file—a binary file created by a previous MAVRIC or Monaco calculation.
The mesh source map must be a binary file using the Monaco mesh source
map format (a *.msm file). This option is specified with the
“meshSourceFile=” keyword and the file name (and full path if necessary)
in quotes.}(hXkThe user can alternatively specify an existing Monaco mesh source map
file—a binary file created by a previous MAVRIC or Monaco calculation.
The mesh source map must be a binary file using the Monaco mesh source
map format (a \*.msm file). This option is specified with the
“meshSourceFile=” keyword and the file name (and full path if necessary)
in quotes.h j?hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j?hhubj)}(hpread sources
src 1
meshSourceFile=”c:\mydocu~1\previouslyMadeSource.msm”
end src
end sourcesh]h/pread sources
src 1
meshSourceFile=”c:\mydocu~1\previouslyMadeSource.msm”
end src
end sources}(hhh j?ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjuhjh!h"hMh j?hhubh;)}(hXaIf the “meshSourceFile=” keyword is used, all energy distribution
keywords and most spatial distribution keywords will be ignored. Source
keywords that can be used with a mesh source include “strength=” to
override the source strength in the mesh source; “biasedStrength=” to
set the sampling strength; “origin”, “x=”, “y=”, and “z=” to place the
origin of the mesh source file at a particular place in the current
global coordinate system; and the keywords for describing the
directional distribution – “dDistributionID=”, “direction *u* *v* *w*\ ”
and “dScaleDist”.h](h/X;If the “meshSourceFile=” keyword is used, all energy distribution
keywords and most spatial distribution keywords will be ignored. Source
keywords that can be used with a mesh source include “strength=” to
override the source strength in the mesh source; “biasedStrength=” to
set the sampling strength; “origin”, “x=”, “y=”, and “z=” to place the
origin of the mesh source file at a particular place in the current
global coordinate system; and the keywords for describing the
directional distribution – “dDistributionID=”, “direction }(hX;If the “meshSourceFile=” keyword is used, all energy distribution
keywords and most spatial distribution keywords will be ignored. Source
keywords that can be used with a mesh source include “strength=” to
override the source strength in the mesh source; “biasedStrength=” to
set the sampling strength; “origin”, “x=”, “y=”, and “z=” to place the
origin of the mesh source file at a particular place in the current
global coordinate system; and the keywords for describing the
directional distribution – “dDistributionID=”, “direction h j?hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*u*h]h/u}(hhh j?ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j?ubh/ }(hj](h j?hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*v*h]h/v}(hhh j?ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j?ubh/ }(hj](h j?ubhA)}(h*w*h]h/w}(hhh j?ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j?ubh/ ”
and “dScaleDist”.}(h\ ”
and “dScaleDist”.h j?hhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j?hhubh;)}(hXMesh sources are sampled using the following algorithm: First, a
direction is sampled. Second, a voxel is sampled and a position is
picked uniformly within the voxel. If that position does not match the
optional limiters (unit, region, material specified in the mesh source),
a new position is chosen within the voxel until a match is made. If a
position cannot be found within the voxel after 10000 tries, Monaco will
stop. (This can occur if the mesh voxel contained just a sliver of
source volume when generated. For this case, the keyword
“allowResampling” can be used to select a new voxel instead of stopping.
In general, this keyword should not be used.)h]h/XMesh sources are sampled using the following algorithm: First, a
direction is sampled. Second, a voxel is sampled and a position is
picked uniformly within the voxel. If that position does not match the
optional limiters (unit, region, material specified in the mesh source),
a new position is chosen within the voxel until a match is made. If a
position cannot be found within the voxel after 10000 tries, Monaco will
stop. (This can occur if the mesh voxel contained just a sliver of
source volume when generated. For this case, the keyword
“allowResampling” can be used to select a new voxel instead of stopping.
In general, this keyword should not be used.)}(hj?h j?hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j?hhubeh}(h]#using-a-monaco-mesh-source-map-fileah]h]#using a monaco mesh source map fileah]h]uhh#h j7hhh!h"hMubh$)}(hhh](h))}(hCreating a mesh sourceh]h/Creating a mesh source}(hj@h j@hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h j@hhh!h"hM ubh;)}(hXTo create a mesh source out of the source definition, use the
“meshSourceSaver” subblock inside the sources block. It is quite handy
to visualize the sources and ensure they are what were intended. You
must specify which one of the defined grid geometries to use (keyword
“gridGeometryID=”) and a filename for the resulting mesh source file
(keyword “filename=” with the filename in quotes
“\ *path*\\\ *name*.msm”). For more than one source, each will be stored
separately and the filename will include the source id number.h](h/XTo create a mesh source out of the source definition, use the
“meshSourceSaver” subblock inside the sources block. It is quite handy
to visualize the sources and ensure they are what were intended. You
must specify which one of the defined grid geometries to use (keyword
“gridGeometryID=”) and a filename for the resulting mesh source file
(keyword “filename=” with the filename in quotes
“ }(hXTo create a mesh source out of the source definition, use the
“meshSourceSaver” subblock inside the sources block. It is quite handy
to visualize the sources and ensure they are what were intended. You
must specify which one of the defined grid geometries to use (keyword
“gridGeometryID=”) and a filename for the resulting mesh source file
(keyword “filename=” with the filename in quotes
“\ Mh j#@hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*path*h]h/path}(hhh j,@ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j#@ubh/\ }(h\\\ h j#@hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*name*h]h/name}(hhh j?@ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j#@ubh/v.msm”). For more than one source, each will be stored
separately and the filename will include the source id number.}(hv.msm”). For more than one source, each will be stored
separately and the filename will include the source id number.h j#@hhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j@hhubj)}(hread sources
src 1
…
…
end src
src 5
…
…
end src
meshSourceSaver
gridGeometryID=7
filename="meshSource.msm"
subcells=3
end meshSourceSaver
end sourcesh]h/read sources
src 1
…
…
end src
src 5
…
…
end src
meshSourceSaver
gridGeometryID=7
filename="meshSource.msm"
subcells=3
end meshSourceSaver
end sources}(hhh jX@ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjuhjh!h"hMh j@hhubh;)}(hXETo create the mesh source, Monaco determines if the defined source
exists within each cell. This is done by dividing each mesh cell into
*n×n×n* subcells (from the keyword subCells=\ *n* with a default of
*n*\ =2) and testing each subcell center. For every subcell center that
is a valid source position (within the spatial solid and meets the
optional unit, region, or mixture requirements), an amount of source
proportional to the subcell volume is assigned to the mesh cell. The
keyword subCells= can be used to better refine how much source is
computed for the mesh cells at the boundary of a curved source region.
Of course, more subcell testing takes more time. If a given source is
degenerate in any dimension (point, line, or plane), that information
will be stored in the resulting mesh source so that particles will not
be sampled over the entire corresponding voxel but will have closer to
the original spatial distribution. Likewise, if the original source had
restrictions based on unit, region or mixture, those restrictions will
be stored as part of the resulting mesh source.h](h/To create the mesh source, Monaco determines if the defined source
exists within each cell. This is done by dividing each mesh cell into
}(hTo create the mesh source, Monaco determines if the defined source
exists within each cell. This is done by dividing each mesh cell into
h jf@hhh!NhNubhA)}(h *n×n×n*h]h/n×n×n}(hhh jo@ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jf@ubh/' subcells (from the keyword subCells= }(h' subcells (from the keyword subCells=\ h jf@hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*n*h]h/n}(hhh j@ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jf@ubh/ with a default of
}(h with a default of
h jf@hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*n*h]h/n}(hhh j@ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jf@ubh/Xs =2) and testing each subcell center. For every subcell center that
is a valid source position (within the spatial solid and meets the
optional unit, region, or mixture requirements), an amount of source
proportional to the subcell volume is assigned to the mesh cell. The
keyword subCells= can be used to better refine how much source is
computed for the mesh cells at the boundary of a curved source region.
Of course, more subcell testing takes more time. If a given source is
degenerate in any dimension (point, line, or plane), that information
will be stored in the resulting mesh source so that particles will not
be sampled over the entire corresponding voxel but will have closer to
the original spatial distribution. Likewise, if the original source had
restrictions based on unit, region or mixture, those restrictions will
be stored as part of the resulting mesh source.}(hXs\ =2) and testing each subcell center. For every subcell center that
is a valid source position (within the spatial solid and meets the
optional unit, region, or mixture requirements), an amount of source
proportional to the subcell volume is assigned to the mesh cell. The
keyword subCells= can be used to better refine how much source is
computed for the mesh cells at the boundary of a curved source region.
Of course, more subcell testing takes more time. If a given source is
degenerate in any dimension (point, line, or plane), that information
will be stored in the resulting mesh source so that particles will not
be sampled over the entire corresponding voxel but will have closer to
the original spatial distribution. Likewise, if the original source had
restrictions based on unit, region or mixture, those restrictions will
be stored as part of the resulting mesh source.h jf@hhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM&h j@hhubh;)}(hXThe above process may miss small sources or degenerate sources
(surfaces, lines, points) that do not lay on the tested subcell centers.
If none of the mesh cells contain any source after the subcell method,
then random sampling of the source is used. A number of source positions
are sampled from the source (set by the “sourceTrials=” keyword, default
of 1000000) and then placed into the proper mesh cell. If this method is
used, the resulting mesh source file should be visualized to ensure that
the statistical nature of the source trials method does not unduly
influence the overall mesh source. To skip the subcell method and go
directly to the source trials method, use “subCells=0”.h]h/XThe above process may miss small sources or degenerate sources
(surfaces, lines, points) that do not lay on the tested subcell centers.
If none of the mesh cells contain any source after the subcell method,
then random sampling of the source is used. A number of source positions
are sampled from the source (set by the “sourceTrials=” keyword, default
of 1000000) and then placed into the proper mesh cell. If this method is
used, the resulting mesh source file should be visualized to ensure that
the statistical nature of the source trials method does not unduly
influence the overall mesh source. To skip the subcell method and go
directly to the source trials method, use “subCells=0”.}(hj@h j@hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM7h j@hhubh;)}(hXThe keyword “makeTotal” will make a single mesh source file which is the
composite of all of the individual sources. Geometric degeneracies or
restrictions to only sample particles from a specified unit, region or
material will only be kept if they are the same for all of the sources.
For this reason, users may not wish to use a mesh source using the
“makeTotal” keyword for transport but rather use it to verify that all
of the sources have been input properly.h]h/XThe keyword “makeTotal” will make a single mesh source file which is the
composite of all of the individual sources. Geometric degeneracies or
restrictions to only sample particles from a specified unit, region or
material will only be kept if they are the same for all of the sources.
For this reason, users may not wish to use a mesh source using the
“makeTotal” keyword for transport but rather use it to verify that all
of the sources have been input properly.}(hj@h j@hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMBh j@hhubh;)}(hXThe keyword “reduce” can be used to only save the smallest rectangular
portion of the mesh surrounding the voxels with non-zero source amounts.
This can result in much smaller file sizes for sources that are small
compared to the extents of the grid geometry.h]h/XThe keyword “reduce” can be used to only save the smallest rectangular
portion of the mesh surrounding the voxels with non-zero source amounts.
This can result in much smaller file sizes for sources that are small
compared to the extents of the grid geometry.}(hj@h j@hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMJh j@hhubh;)}(hXMonaco mesh source files (\*.msm) can be viewed with the Mesh File
Viewer. Plots can be made showing the source values for each group (or
total). The viewer can also show the geometry regions or material
mixtures as well. Using the viewer is an easy way to confirm that the
source definition was entered correctly. Note that the \*.msm files
actually only store the biased sampling distribution and the initial
weights (to speed up the sampling process). So, in the viewer the “true”
source is computed as the product of the sampled distribution and the
weights. If groups with real source are set to zero importance, the
viewer cannot recreate the original true source. The true source shown
by the viewer is the amount of true source only in groups that have
non-zero importance.h]h/XMonaco mesh source files (*.msm) can be viewed with the Mesh File
Viewer. Plots can be made showing the source values for each group (or
total). The viewer can also show the geometry regions or material
mixtures as well. Using the viewer is an easy way to confirm that the
source definition was entered correctly. Note that the *.msm files
actually only store the biased sampling distribution and the initial
weights (to speed up the sampling process). So, in the viewer the “true”
source is computed as the product of the sampled distribution and the
weights. If groups with real source are set to zero importance, the
viewer cannot recreate the original true source. The true source shown
by the viewer is the amount of true source only in groups that have
non-zero importance.}(hXMonaco mesh source files (\*.msm) can be viewed with the Mesh File
Viewer. Plots can be made showing the source values for each group (or
total). The viewer can also show the geometry regions or material
mixtures as well. Using the viewer is an easy way to confirm that the
source definition was entered correctly. Note that the \*.msm files
actually only store the biased sampling distribution and the initial
weights (to speed up the sampling process). So, in the viewer the “true”
source is computed as the product of the sampled distribution and the
weights. If groups with real source are set to zero importance, the
viewer cannot recreate the original true source. The true source shown
by the viewer is the amount of true source only in groups that have
non-zero importance.h j@hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMOh j@hhubeh}(h]creating-a-mesh-sourceah]h]creating a mesh sourceah]h]uhh#h j7hhh!h"hM ubh$)}(hhh](h))}(hMesh source advanced featuresh]h/Mesh source advanced features}(hj@h j@hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h j@hhh!h"hM]ubh;)}(hTwo advanced features exist in the meshSourceSaver subblock – mainly
used by the MAVRIC sequence when the importance map calculations use a
different cross-section library than the final Monaco calculation.h]h/Two advanced features exist in the meshSourceSaver subblock – mainly
used by the MAVRIC sequence when the importance map calculations use a
different cross-section library than the final Monaco calculation.}(hjAh jAhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM_h j@hhubh;)}(hXlThe keyword “sampleFromMesh” can be used to tell Monaco to sample from
the created mesh file(s) instead of the standard source definition. This
can be useful in determining if the mesh source is fine enough to
accurately represent the original source definition. If the “makeTotal”
keyword was used, then Monaco will sample from the total mesh source
file.h]h/XlThe keyword “sampleFromMesh” can be used to tell Monaco to sample from
the created mesh file(s) instead of the standard source definition. This
can be useful in determining if the mesh source is fine enough to
accurately represent the original source definition. If the “makeTotal”
keyword was used, then Monaco will sample from the total mesh source
file.}(hjAh jAhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMch j@hhubh;)}(hXRThe keyword “meshBiasFile=” can be optionally be used when
“sampleFromMesh” is on. This tells Monaco to sample from the mesh source
file(s) version of the source definition that has been modified using
just the importance information from the named mesh source file. For
example, using a 27-group biased mesh source for a Watt spectrum source
may not represent the high energy tail very well. In this case, it would
be better to do a 200-group Monaco calculation but still use the
importance information from 27-group mesh source file using
“sampleFromMesh” and “meshBiasFile=”.h]h/XRThe keyword “meshBiasFile=” can be optionally be used when
“sampleFromMesh” is on. This tells Monaco to sample from the mesh source
file(s) version of the source definition that has been modified using
just the importance information from the named mesh source file. For
example, using a 27-group biased mesh source for a Watt spectrum source
may not represent the high energy tail very well. In this case, it would
be better to do a 200-group Monaco calculation but still use the
importance information from 27-group mesh source file using
“sampleFromMesh” and “meshBiasFile=”.}(hjAh jAhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMjh j@hhubeh}(h]mesh-source-advanced-featuresah]h]mesh source advanced featuresah]h]uhh#h j7hhh!h"hM]ubeh}(h]
sources-blockah]h]
sources blockah]h]uhh#h jBhhh!h"hM\ubh$)}(hhh](h))}(h
Tallies blockh]h/
Tallies block}(hj?Ah j=Ahhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h j:Ahhh!h"hMuubh;)}(hXThe tallies block tells Monaco what to compute: fluxes at certain points
in space (point detectors), fluxes in certain geometry regions, or
fluxes in each voxel of a mesh grid. The computed fluxes can also be
integrated with response functions to compute dose, reaction rate or
some other dose-like quantity. Any number of optional response functions
can be evaluated with each tally.h]h/XThe tallies block tells Monaco what to compute: fluxes at certain points
in space (point detectors), fluxes in certain geometry regions, or
fluxes in each voxel of a mesh grid. The computed fluxes can also be
integrated with response functions to compute dose, reaction rate or
some other dose-like quantity. Any number of optional response functions
can be evaluated with each tally.}(hjMAh jKAhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMwh j:Ahhubh;)}(hXEach tally type begins with a keyword (“pointDetector”, “regionTally”,
or “meshTally”) and ends with an “end” and that same keyword. Individual
tallies can be listed in any order. Identification numbers for each
tally are required and must be positive integers and unique among the
tally type. All three of the tally types can have an optional title
using the keyword “title=” followed by the title enclosed in double
quotes. Tallies should be defined as either a neutron tally or a photon
tally.h]h/XEach tally type begins with a keyword (“pointDetector”, “regionTally”,
or “meshTally”) and ends with an “end” and that same keyword. Individual
tallies can be listed in any order. Identification numbers for each
tally are required and must be positive integers and unique among the
tally type. All three of the tally types can have an optional title
using the keyword “title=” followed by the title enclosed in double
quotes. Tallies should be defined as either a neutron tally or a photon
tally.}(hj[Ah jYAhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM~h j:Ahhubj)}(hread tallies
pointDetector 1
…
end pointDetector
regionTally 9
…
end regionTally
regionTally 19
…
end regionTally
meshTally 1
…
end meshTally
end talliesh]h/read tallies
pointDetector 1
…
end pointDetector
regionTally 9
…
end regionTally
regionTally 19
…
end regionTally
meshTally 1
…
end meshTally
end tallies}(hhh jgAubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjuhjh!h"hMh j:Ahhubh;)}(hXEach tally computes the fluxes in each tally bin and the total flux. For
multigroup calculations, the multigroup cross section group structure is
used for all tallies. For CE calculations, each tally can use a
different “energyBoundsID=”, which points to one of the energy bounds
defined in the definitions block. CE calculations can also use the
keyword “timeBoundsID=” to specify a set of time bin boundaries. For one
response function to integrate the fluxes with, the keyword
“responseID=” can be used, where the value corresponds to the
identification number of one of the response functions defined in the
definitions block. For multiple response functions, the keyword array
“responseIDs … end” can be used.h]h/XEach tally computes the fluxes in each tally bin and the total flux. For
multigroup calculations, the multigroup cross section group structure is
used for all tallies. For CE calculations, each tally can use a
different “energyBoundsID=”, which points to one of the energy bounds
defined in the definitions block. CE calculations can also use the
keyword “timeBoundsID=” to specify a set of time bin boundaries. For one
response function to integrate the fluxes with, the keyword
“responseID=” can be used, where the value corresponds to the
identification number of one of the response functions defined in the
definitions block. For multiple response functions, the keyword array
“responseIDs … end” can be used.}(hjwAh juAhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j:Ahhubh;)}(hXEach tally type can be multiplied by using the “multiplier=” keyword.
This is useful for units conversions or other types of scaling. Multiple
uses of the multiplier keyword within one tally definition will apply
the product of all multipliers to that tally. Using the keyword
“multiplier=” inside the tallies block but outside any particular tally
will apply that multiplier to all tallies.h]h/XEach tally type can be multiplied by using the “multiplier=” keyword.
This is useful for units conversions or other types of scaling. Multiple
uses of the multiplier keyword within one tally definition will apply
the product of all multipliers to that tally. Using the keyword
“multiplier=” inside the tallies block but outside any particular tally
will apply that multiplier to all tallies.}(hjAh jAhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j:Ahhubh$)}(hhh](h))}(hPoint detector talliesh]h/Point detector tallies}(hjAh jAhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h jAhhh!h"hMubh;)}(hXvA point detector tally computes the uncollided and total flux at a given
location in space. This tally requires exactly one location and can use
any number of optional response functions. The “locationID=” keyword is
used to specify one of the locations listed in the definitions block.
Point detectors should only use locations that are in void regions of
the geometry.h]h/XvA point detector tally computes the uncollided and total flux at a given
location in space. This tally requires exactly one location and can use
any number of optional response functions. The “locationID=” keyword is
used to specify one of the locations listed in the definitions block.
Point detectors should only use locations that are in void regions of
the geometry.}(hjAh jAhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jAhhubh;)}(hXBecause point detectors estimate the flux at the location using a
ray-trace from every collision site during the life of the particle,
they can be quite expensive. For particles very far away from the
detector location, the contributions to the tally can be quite small.
Point detectors can be made to use the importance of the current
particle location/energy to decide whether or not to make a contribution
to the tally using the keyword “minSampProb=” and a value such as 0.1 or
0.01. This keyword specifies the minimum sampling probability for a
given point detector. As the particle is transported, the probability
:math:`p` of making a contribution to the point detector tally is set by
using the current weight of the particle, :math:`w`, to beh](h/XpBecause point detectors estimate the flux at the location using a
ray-trace from every collision site during the life of the particle,
they can be quite expensive. For particles very far away from the
detector location, the contributions to the tally can be quite small.
Point detectors can be made to use the importance of the current
particle location/energy to decide whether or not to make a contribution
to the tally using the keyword “minSampProb=” and a value such as 0.1 or
0.01. This keyword specifies the minimum sampling probability for a
given point detector. As the particle is transported, the probability
}(hXpBecause point detectors estimate the flux at the location using a
ray-trace from every collision site during the life of the particle,
they can be quite expensive. For particles very far away from the
detector location, the contributions to the tally can be quite small.
Point detectors can be made to use the importance of the current
particle location/energy to decide whether or not to make a contribution
to the tally using the keyword “minSampProb=” and a value such as 0.1 or
0.01. This keyword specifies the minimum sampling probability for a
given point detector. As the particle is transported, the probability
h jAhhh!NhNubh)}(h :math:`p`h]h/p}(hhh jAubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jAubh/j of making a contribution to the point detector tally is set by
using the current weight of the particle, }(hj of making a contribution to the point detector tally is set by
using the current weight of the particle, h jAhhh!NhNubh)}(h :math:`w`h]h/w}(hhh jAubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jAubh/, to be}(h, to beh jAhhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jAhhubh)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hequation-monaco-19uhh
h jAhhh!h"hNubj)}(h2p = \left( \frac{w_{\mathrm{\min}}}{w} \right)^{a}h]h/2p = \left( \frac{w_{\mathrm{\min}}}{w} \right)^{a}}(hhh jAubah}(h]jAah]h]h]h]docnamejnumberKlabel Monaco-19nowrapjjuhjh!h"hMh jAhhj}j}jAjAsubh;)}(hwhere the power :math:`a` for each point detector was determined at the
start of the simulation using the minimum sampling probability
:math:`p_{\mathrm{\min}}` to beh](h/where the power }(hwhere the power h jBhhh!NhNubh)}(h :math:`a`h]h/a}(hhh j
Bubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jBubh/n for each point detector was determined at the
start of the simulation using the minimum sampling probability
}(hn for each point detector was determined at the
start of the simulation using the minimum sampling probability
h jBhhh!NhNubh)}(h:math:`p_{\mathrm{\min}}`h]h/p_{\mathrm{\min}}}(hhh j Bubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jBubh/ to be}(h to beh jBhhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jAhhubh)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hequation-monaco-20uhh
h jAhhh!h"hNubj)}(ha = \ \frac{\mathrm{ln} \left( p_{\mathrm{\min}} \right)}{\mathrm{\ln}\left( \frac{w_{\mathrm{\min}}}{w_{\mathrm{\max}}} \right)}h]h/a = \ \frac{\mathrm{ln} \left( p_{\mathrm{\min}} \right)}{\mathrm{\ln}\left( \frac{w_{\mathrm{\min}}}{w_{\mathrm{\max}}} \right)}}(hhh jCBubah}(h]jBBah]h]h]h]docnamejnumberKlabel Monaco-20nowrapjjuhjh!h"hMh jAhhj}j}jBBj9Bsubh;)}(hXiwhere the minimum and maximum target weights, :math:`w_{\mathrm{\min}}`
and :math:`w_{\mathrm{\min}}`, were determined from either the
region-based weight targets or the mesh-based importance map weight
targets. So, when the current particle weight approaches the minimum
target weight of the problem (in very important areas), the point
detector contribution is made nearly 100% of the time. When the particle
weight approaches the maximum target weight (in very unimportant areas),
the contribution to the point detector tally is made with probability
:math:`p_{\mathrm{\min}}`, saving quite a bit of computer time.h](h/.where the minimum and maximum target weights, }(h.where the minimum and maximum target weights, h jXBhhh!NhNubh)}(h:math:`w_{\mathrm{\min}}`h]h/w_{\mathrm{\min}}}(hhh jaBubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jXBubh/
and }(h
and h jXBhhh!NhNubh)}(h:math:`w_{\mathrm{\min}}`h]h/w_{\mathrm{\min}}}(hhh jtBubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jXBubh/X, were determined from either the
region-based weight targets or the mesh-based importance map weight
targets. So, when the current particle weight approaches the minimum
target weight of the problem (in very important areas), the point
detector contribution is made nearly 100% of the time. When the particle
weight approaches the maximum target weight (in very unimportant areas),
the contribution to the point detector tally is made with probability
}(hX, were determined from either the
region-based weight targets or the mesh-based importance map weight
targets. So, when the current particle weight approaches the minimum
target weight of the problem (in very important areas), the point
detector contribution is made nearly 100% of the time. When the particle
weight approaches the maximum target weight (in very unimportant areas),
the contribution to the point detector tally is made with probability
h jXBhhh!NhNubh)}(h:math:`p_{\mathrm{\min}}`h]h/p_{\mathrm{\min}}}(hhh jBubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jXBubh/&, saving quite a bit of computer time.}(h&, saving quite a bit of computer time.h jXBhhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jAhhubh;)}(hX$This option should only be used if the point detector location is in the
area of high importance. For point detectors in areas of low importance,
using this option may severely undersample the point detector where
contributions would actually be the most significant, causing an
underestimation of the flux. The default value for the minimum sampling
probability is :math:`p_{\mathrm{\min}} = 1`, giving a default value of
:math:`a = 0` so that the point detector contribution is made at every
collision, independent of the current particle weight.h](h/XnThis option should only be used if the point detector location is in the
area of high importance. For point detectors in areas of low importance,
using this option may severely undersample the point detector where
contributions would actually be the most significant, causing an
underestimation of the flux. The default value for the minimum sampling
probability is }(hXnThis option should only be used if the point detector location is in the
area of high importance. For point detectors in areas of low importance,
using this option may severely undersample the point detector where
contributions would actually be the most significant, causing an
underestimation of the flux. The default value for the minimum sampling
probability is h jBhhh!NhNubh)}(h:math:`p_{\mathrm{\min}} = 1`h]h/p_{\mathrm{\min}} = 1}(hhh jBubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jBubh/, giving a default value of
}(h, giving a default value of
h jBhhh!NhNubh)}(h
:math:`a = 0`h]h/a = 0}(hhh jBubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jBubh/p so that the point detector contribution is made at every
collision, independent of the current particle weight.}(hp so that the point detector contribution is made at every
collision, independent of the current particle weight.h jBhhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jAhhubh;)}(hThe keyword “minSampProb” used in the tallies block but outside any
particular point detector tally specification will be applied to all
point detectors.h]h/The keyword “minSampProb” used in the tallies block but outside any
particular point detector tally specification will be applied to all
point detectors.}(hjBh jBhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jAhhubh;)}(hXEach point detector is summarized in the main output file. The
uncollided and total flux for each particle type is listed as well as
the values for the optional integrated response functions. Along with
each of these quantities is a list of the standard deviation of the
quantity, the relative uncertainty, the figure-of-merit and a summary of
list of the statistical checks (passed or not). Group-by-group values of
the fluxes and responses are listed in a separate file named
“\ *outputName*.pd\ *id*.txt” where *outputName* is the name the user
chose for his output file and “\ *id*\ ” is the identification number
corresponding to the point detector tally specification. This file also
contains more information about the six statistical checks for flux and
each response – their pass/fail values with each batch of simulated
particles and their final numerical values at the end of the simulation.
A second file called “\ *outputName*.pd\ *id*.chart” is also created
which can be displayed using the ChartPlot 2D Interactive Plotter, to
visually check the convergence behavior of the tally. The total neutron
flux, the total photon flux, and the total response function value for
each response as a function of batch can be viewed.h](h/XEach point detector is summarized in the main output file. The
uncollided and total flux for each particle type is listed as well as
the values for the optional integrated response functions. Along with
each of these quantities is a list of the standard deviation of the
quantity, the relative uncertainty, the figure-of-merit and a summary of
list of the statistical checks (passed or not). Group-by-group values of
the fluxes and responses are listed in a separate file named
“ }(hXEach point detector is summarized in the main output file. The
uncollided and total flux for each particle type is listed as well as
the values for the optional integrated response functions. Along with
each of these quantities is a list of the standard deviation of the
quantity, the relative uncertainty, the figure-of-merit and a summary of
list of the statistical checks (passed or not). Group-by-group values of
the fluxes and responses are listed in a separate file named
“\ h jBhhh!NhNubhA)}(h*outputName*h]h/
outputName}(hhh jBubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jBubh/.pd }(h.pd\ h jBhhh!NhNubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh jBubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jBubh/.txt” where }(h.txt” where h jBhhh!NhNubhA)}(h*outputName*h]h/
outputName}(hhh jCubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jBubh/9 is the name the user
chose for his output file and “ }(h9 is the name the user
chose for his output file and “\ h jBhhh!NhNubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh j%Cubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jBubh/X\ ” is the identification number
corresponding to the point detector tally specification. This file also
contains more information about the six statistical checks for flux and
each response – their pass/fail values with each batch of simulated
particles and their final numerical values at the end of the simulation.
A second file called “ }(hX\\ ” is the identification number
corresponding to the point detector tally specification. This file also
contains more information about the six statistical checks for flux and
each response – their pass/fail values with each batch of simulated
particles and their final numerical values at the end of the simulation.
A second file called “\ h jBhhh!NhNubhA)}(h*outputName*h]h/
outputName}(hhh j8Cubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jBubh/.pd }(hjBh jBubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh jJCubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jBubh/X".chart” is also created
which can be displayed using the ChartPlot 2D Interactive Plotter, to
visually check the convergence behavior of the tally. The total neutron
flux, the total photon flux, and the total response function value for
each response as a function of batch can be viewed.}(hX".chart” is also created
which can be displayed using the ChartPlot 2D Interactive Plotter, to
visually check the convergence behavior of the tally. The total neutron
flux, the total photon flux, and the total response function value for
each response as a function of batch can be viewed.h jBhhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jAhhubeh}(h]id6ah]h]h]jah]uhh#h j:Ahhh!h"hMjKubh$)}(hhh](h))}(hRegion talliesh]h/Region tallies}(hjoCh jmChhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h jjChhh!h"hMubh;)}(hXA region tally computes both the track-length estimate and the collision
density estimate of the flux over a given geometry region (an SGGP
“media”). This tally uses the keywords “unit=”, “region=”, and
“mixture=” to limit the tally to one or more of those aspects. For
example, “unit=2” and “region=3” are used to specify a region tally for
the 3rd media listed for unit 2 of the SGGP geometry input. A mixture
and a unit/region cannot both be specified since that would either be
redundant or mutually exclusive. If the volume of the region is not
given (or calculated) in the SGGP input, then instead of flux, the tally
will compute average track length and average collision density.h]h/XA region tally computes both the track-length estimate and the collision
density estimate of the flux over a given geometry region (an SGGP
“media”). This tally uses the keywords “unit=”, “region=”, and
“mixture=” to limit the tally to one or more of those aspects. For
example, “unit=2” and “region=3” are used to specify a region tally for
the 3rd media listed for unit 2 of the SGGP geometry input. A mixture
and a unit/region cannot both be specified since that would either be
redundant or mutually exclusive. If the volume of the region is not
given (or calculated) in the SGGP input, then instead of flux, the tally
will compute average track length and average collision density.}(hj}Ch j{Chhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jjChhubh;)}(hXEach region tally is summarized in the main output file. The total flux
for each particle type is listed as well as the values for the optional
integrated response functions. Along with each of these quantities is a
list of the standard deviation of the quantity, the relative
uncertainty, the figure-of-merit and a summary of list of the
statistical checks (passed or not). Group-by-group values of the fluxes
and responses are listed in a separate file named
“\ *outputName*.rt\ *id*.txt” where *outputName* is the name the user
chose for his output file and “\ *id*\ ” is the identification number
corresponding to the region tally specification. This file also contains
more information about the six statistical checks for flux and each
response – their pass/fail values with each batch of simulated particles
and their final numerical values at the end of the simulation. A second
file called “\ *outputName*.rt\ *id*.chart” is also created which can be
displayed using the ChartPlot 2D Interactive Plotter, to visually check
the convergence behavior of the tally. The total neutron flux, the total
photon flux, and the total response function value for each response as
a function of batch can be viewed.h](h/XEach region tally is summarized in the main output file. The total flux
for each particle type is listed as well as the values for the optional
integrated response functions. Along with each of these quantities is a
list of the standard deviation of the quantity, the relative
uncertainty, the figure-of-merit and a summary of list of the
statistical checks (passed or not). Group-by-group values of the fluxes
and responses are listed in a separate file named
“ }(hXEach region tally is summarized in the main output file. The total flux
for each particle type is listed as well as the values for the optional
integrated response functions. Along with each of these quantities is a
list of the standard deviation of the quantity, the relative
uncertainty, the figure-of-merit and a summary of list of the
statistical checks (passed or not). Group-by-group values of the fluxes
and responses are listed in a separate file named
“\ h jChhh!NhNubhA)}(h*outputName*h]h/
outputName}(hhh jCubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jCubh/.rt }(h.rt\ h jChhh!NhNubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh jCubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jCubh/.txt” where }(h.txt” where h jChhh!NhNubhA)}(h*outputName*h]h/
outputName}(hhh jCubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jCubh/9 is the name the user
chose for his output file and “ }(h9 is the name the user
chose for his output file and “\ h jChhh!NhNubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh jCubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jCubh/XT ” is the identification number
corresponding to the region tally specification. This file also contains
more information about the six statistical checks for flux and each
response – their pass/fail values with each batch of simulated particles
and their final numerical values at the end of the simulation. A second
file called “ }(hXT\ ” is the identification number
corresponding to the region tally specification. This file also contains
more information about the six statistical checks for flux and each
response – their pass/fail values with each batch of simulated particles
and their final numerical values at the end of the simulation. A second
file called “\ h jChhh!NhNubhA)}(h*outputName*h]h/
outputName}(hhh jCubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jCubh/.rt }(hjCh jCubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh jCubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jCubh/X".chart” is also created which can be
displayed using the ChartPlot 2D Interactive Plotter, to visually check
the convergence behavior of the tally. The total neutron flux, the total
photon flux, and the total response function value for each response as
a function of batch can be viewed.}(hX".chart” is also created which can be
displayed using the ChartPlot 2D Interactive Plotter, to visually check
the convergence behavior of the tally. The total neutron flux, the total
photon flux, and the total response function value for each response as
a function of batch can be viewed.h jChhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM
h jjChhubeh}(h]id7ah]h]h]jah]uhh#h j:Ahhh!h"hMjKubh$)}(hhh](h))}(hMesh talliesh]h/Mesh tallies}(hjDh jDhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h jDhhh!h"hM ubh;)}(hX@A mesh tally computes the track-length estimate of the flux for every
cell in a grid (mesh) geometry. This tally requires exactly one grid
geometry or cylindrical geometry and can use any number of optional
response functions. The “gridGeometryID=” or “cylGeometryID=” keyword is
used to specify one of the mesh geometries listed in the definitions
block. The group-by-group flux values, the total flux values and the
total for each response are kept in memory during the simulation.
Group-by-group contributions to the responses are not tallied during the
simulation.h]h/X@A mesh tally computes the track-length estimate of the flux for every
cell in a grid (mesh) geometry. This tally requires exactly one grid
geometry or cylindrical geometry and can use any number of optional
response functions. The “gridGeometryID=” or “cylGeometryID=” keyword is
used to specify one of the mesh geometries listed in the definitions
block. The group-by-group flux values, the total flux values and the
total for each response are kept in memory during the simulation.
Group-by-group contributions to the responses are not tallied during the
simulation.}(hj#Dh j!Dhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM h jDhhubh;)}(hX]Mesh tallies can be limited to only save contributions to the voxel flux
from track lengths through a certain unit, region or material using the
keywords “unit=”, “region=”, and “mixture=”. For example, to compute a
mesh tally of a reaction rate of a specific isotope, the response
function should only be multiplied by the amount of flux in the voxel
that resulted in contributions from the material that contained that
isotope. In this case, the keyword “mixture=” should be used so that the
fluxes in each voxel represent only the flux from that material that
holds the desired isotope.h]h/X]Mesh tallies can be limited to only save contributions to the voxel flux
from track lengths through a certain unit, region or material using the
keywords “unit=”, “region=”, and “mixture=”. For example, to compute a
mesh tally of a reaction rate of a specific isotope, the response
function should only be multiplied by the amount of flux in the voxel
that resulted in contributions from the material that contained that
isotope. In this case, the keyword “mixture=” should be used so that the
fluxes in each voxel represent only the flux from that material that
holds the desired isotope.}(hj1Dh j/Dhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM* h jDhhubh;)}(hXzA mesh tally saves the flux for each group, as well as the integrated
response functions for each listed response for every cell of the grid
geometry to a file called “\ *outputName*.mt\ *id*.3dmap” where
*outputName* is the name the user chose for his output file and
“\ *id*\ ” is the identification number corresponding to the mesh tally
specification. This file contains the group flux values and their
absolute uncertainties. If any response functions were specified, then
the responses and their uncertainties will be computed and stored in the
same file. Monaco mesh tally files can be viewed with the Mesh File
Viewer.h](h/A mesh tally saves the flux for each group, as well as the integrated
response functions for each listed response for every cell of the grid
geometry to a file called “ }(hA mesh tally saves the flux for each group, as well as the integrated
response functions for each listed response for every cell of the grid
geometry to a file called “\ h j=Dhhh!NhNubhA)}(h*outputName*h]h/
outputName}(hhh jFDubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j=Dubh/.mt }(h.mt\ h j=Dhhh!NhNubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh jYDubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j=Dubh/.3dmap” where
}(h.3dmap” where
h j=Dhhh!NhNubhA)}(h*outputName*h]h/
outputName}(hhh jlDubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j=Dubh/9 is the name the user chose for his output file and
“ }(h9 is the name the user chose for his output file and
“\ h j=Dhhh!NhNubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh jDubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j=Dubh/X` ” is the identification number corresponding to the mesh tally
specification. This file contains the group flux values and their
absolute uncertainties. If any response functions were specified, then
the responses and their uncertainties will be computed and stored in the
same file. Monaco mesh tally files can be viewed with the Mesh File
Viewer.}(hX`\ ” is the identification number corresponding to the mesh tally
specification. This file contains the group flux values and their
absolute uncertainties. If any response functions were specified, then
the responses and their uncertainties will be computed and stored in the
same file. Monaco mesh tally files can be viewed with the Mesh File
Viewer.h j=Dhhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM4 h jDhhubh;)}(hXWith each mesh tally, files are also created with the statistical test
information - “\ *outputName*.mt\ *id*.flux” and
“\ *outputName*.mt\ *id*.resp\ *xx*.txt” where *xx* is the responseID.
The statistical tests can be turned off with the keyword “noStatChecks”.h](h/ZWith each mesh tally, files are also created with the statistical test
information - “ }(hZWith each mesh tally, files are also created with the statistical test
information - “\ h jDhhh!NhNubhA)}(h*outputName*h]h/
outputName}(hhh jDubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jDubh/.mt }(h.mt\ h jDhhh!NhNubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh jDubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jDubh/.flux” and
“ }(h.flux” and
“\ h jDhhh!NhNubhA)}(h*outputName*h]h/
outputName}(hhh jDubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jDubh/.mt }(hjDh jDubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh jDubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jDubh/.resp }(h.resp\ h jDhhh!NhNubhA)}(h*xx*h]h/xx}(hhh jDubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jDubh/.txt” where }(h.txt” where h jDhhh!NhNubhA)}(h*xx*h]h/xx}(hhh jDubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jDubh/` is the responseID.
The statistical tests can be turned off with the keyword “noStatChecks”.}(h` is the responseID.
The statistical tests can be turned off with the keyword “noStatChecks”.h jDhhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM? h jDhhubh;)}(hXThe Mesh File Viewer can be used to show the value, uncertainty, or
relative uncertainty of any of the group fluxes, total fluxes, or
responses tallied. For characterizing the mesh tally, the viewer can be
used to display histograms of the relative errors—showing what fraction
of the mesh cells had less than some amount of relative uncertainty.
Images from the Mesh File Viewer can be saved as \*.jpg, \*.bmp, \*.gif
or \*.png files or exported to other applications, such as MS Word.h]h/XThe Mesh File Viewer can be used to show the value, uncertainty, or
relative uncertainty of any of the group fluxes, total fluxes, or
responses tallied. For characterizing the mesh tally, the viewer can be
used to display histograms of the relative errors—showing what fraction
of the mesh cells had less than some amount of relative uncertainty.
Images from the Mesh File Viewer can be saved as *.jpg, *.bmp, *.gif
or *.png files or exported to other applications, such as MS Word.}(hXThe Mesh File Viewer can be used to show the value, uncertainty, or
relative uncertainty of any of the group fluxes, total fluxes, or
responses tallied. For characterizing the mesh tally, the viewer can be
used to display histograms of the relative errors—showing what fraction
of the mesh cells had less than some amount of relative uncertainty.
Images from the Mesh File Viewer can be saved as \*.jpg, \*.bmp, \*.gif
or \*.png files or exported to other applications, such as MS Word.h jEhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMD h jDhhubh;)}(hX*Mesh tally files can become quite large—if the group-by-group fluxes are
not important for a given problem, the keyword “noGroupFluxes” can be
added to the mesh tally input. Instead of the group fluxes, only the
total neutron and total photon fluxes will be written to the mesh tally
file. If the group-by-group values for the response functions are
required, the keyword “saveRespDetails” can be used to create separate
mesh tally files of each response called
“\ *outputName*.mt\ *id*.resp\ *id*.3dmap” where the second “\ *id*\ ”
is the response identification number. Note that for CE calculations,
these group-by-group results are formed using the response function
mapped onto the energy grid of the tally, since separate tallies of
response by group are not made during the simulation.h](h/XMesh tally files can become quite large—if the group-by-group fluxes are
not important for a given problem, the keyword “noGroupFluxes” can be
added to the mesh tally input. Instead of the group fluxes, only the
total neutron and total photon fluxes will be written to the mesh tally
file. If the group-by-group values for the response functions are
required, the keyword “saveRespDetails” can be used to create separate
mesh tally files of each response called
“ }(hXMesh tally files can become quite large—if the group-by-group fluxes are
not important for a given problem, the keyword “noGroupFluxes” can be
added to the mesh tally input. Instead of the group fluxes, only the
total neutron and total photon fluxes will be written to the mesh tally
file. If the group-by-group values for the response functions are
required, the keyword “saveRespDetails” can be used to create separate
mesh tally files of each response called
“\ h j'Ehhh!NhNubhA)}(h*outputName*h]h/
outputName}(hhh j0Eubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j'Eubh/.mt }(h.mt\ h j'Ehhh!NhNubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh jCEubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j'Eubh/.resp }(h.resp\ h j'Ehhh!NhNubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh jVEubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j'Eubh/ .3dmap” where the second “ }(h .3dmap” where the second “\ h j'Ehhh!NhNubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh jiEubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j'Eubh/X ”
is the response identification number. Note that for CE calculations,
these group-by-group results are formed using the response function
mapped onto the energy grid of the tally, since separate tallies of
response by group are not made during the simulation.}(hX \ ”
is the response identification number. Note that for CE calculations,
these group-by-group results are formed using the response function
mapped onto the energy grid of the tally, since separate tallies of
response by group are not made during the simulation.h j'Ehhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hML h jDhhubh;)}(hXoThe mesh tally keyword “weightless” will instruct Monaco to not include
the particle weight in the contribution to the mesh tally for track
lengths that cross the voxels of the mesh. Instead of a flux tally, this
will compute the Monte Carlo particle density – a measure of the number
of particles simulated by Monaco in each mesh cell and in each energy
group.h]h/XoThe mesh tally keyword “weightless” will instruct Monaco to not include
the particle weight in the contribution to the mesh tally for track
lengths that cross the voxels of the mesh. Instead of a flux tally, this
will compute the Monte Carlo particle density – a measure of the number
of particles simulated by Monaco in each mesh cell and in each energy
group.}(hjEh jEhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMY h jDhhubh;)}(hXcMesh tallies can use a cylindrical mesh instead of a rectilinear mesh.
Use the keyword “cylGeometryID=” instead of “gridGeometryID=” and
reference one of the defined cylindrical meshes defined in the
definitions block. Both cannot be specified at the same time. The Java
Mesh File Viewer can only show the *r*-*z* view of a cylindrical mesh
tally.h](h/X:Mesh tallies can use a cylindrical mesh instead of a rectilinear mesh.
Use the keyword “cylGeometryID=” instead of “gridGeometryID=” and
reference one of the defined cylindrical meshes defined in the
definitions block. Both cannot be specified at the same time. The Java
Mesh File Viewer can only show the }(hX:Mesh tallies can use a cylindrical mesh instead of a rectilinear mesh.
Use the keyword “cylGeometryID=” instead of “gridGeometryID=” and
reference one of the defined cylindrical meshes defined in the
definitions block. Both cannot be specified at the same time. The Java
Mesh File Viewer can only show the h jEhhh!NhNubhA)}(h*r*h]h/r}(hhh jEubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jEubh/-}(hjh jEhhh!NhNubhA)}(h*z*h]h/z}(hhh jEubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jEubh/" view of a cylindrical mesh
tally.}(h" view of a cylindrical mesh
tally.h jEhhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM` h jDhhubeh}(h]id8ah]h]h]jah]uhh#h j:Ahhh!h"hM jKubeh}(h]
tallies-blockah]h]
tallies blockah]h]uhh#h jBhhh!h"hMuubh$)}(hhh](h))}(hParameter Blockh]h/Parameter Block}(hjEh jEhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h jEhhh!h"hMh ubh;)}(hXThe parameter block sets the Monte Carlo parameters used by Monaco.
Items can be listed in any order. The initial random number
(“randomSeed=”) is given as a 16-digit hexadecimal number. The number of
histories per batch (“perBatch=”) and the number of batches (“batches=”)
can be specified. After every batch of source particles, the tally files
are saved to disk. To prevent long run times, a maximum run time in
minutes (“maxMinutes=”) can also be specified. Defaults are 10 batches
of 1000 histories each, with no time limit. The value of batches is used
to allocate arrays for the tally statistical tests – so do not make this
overly large, even when using maxMinutes to control termination.h]h/XThe parameter block sets the Monte Carlo parameters used by Monaco.
Items can be listed in any order. The initial random number
(“randomSeed=”) is given as a 16-digit hexadecimal number. The number of
histories per batch (“perBatch=”) and the number of batches (“batches=”)
can be specified. After every batch of source particles, the tally files
are saved to disk. To prevent long run times, a maximum run time in
minutes (“maxMinutes=”) can also be specified. Defaults are 10 batches
of 1000 histories each, with no time limit. The value of batches is used
to allocate arrays for the tally statistical tests – so do not make this
overly large, even when using maxMinutes to control termination.}(hjEh jEhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMj h jEhhubh;)}(hXFor MULTIGROUP, the particles contained in the library will be
transported, unless turned off using the keywords “noNeutron” or
“noPhoton.” In CE, to prevent loading large amounts of unneeded
cross-section information into memory, the user should specify which
particles to transport, using the keywords “neutron” and/or “photon.”
Monaco also supports Doppler pre-broadening of the CE neutron cross
sections. This is controlled by the “dopplerBroaden=” parameter. Integer
options are 0 (disabled, default), 1 (broaden 1D cross sections only), 2
(broaden 1D and 2D cross sections), and 3 (broaden 2D cross sections
normally and broaden 1D cross sections using a less robust, but faster,
interpolation method).h]h/XFor MULTIGROUP, the particles contained in the library will be
transported, unless turned off using the keywords “noNeutron” or
“noPhoton.” In CE, to prevent loading large amounts of unneeded
cross-section information into memory, the user should specify which
particles to transport, using the keywords “neutron” and/or “photon.”
Monaco also supports Doppler pre-broadening of the CE neutron cross
sections. This is controlled by the “dopplerBroaden=” parameter. Integer
options are 0 (disabled, default), 1 (broaden 1D cross sections only), 2
(broaden 1D and 2D cross sections), and 3 (broaden 2D cross sections
normally and broaden 1D cross sections using a less robust, but faster,
interpolation method).}(hjEh jEhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMu h jEhhubh;)}(hXThe default behavior for Monaco is to create neutrons from fission
events and create secondary gammas from neutron collisions. To turn off
the creation of fission neutrons in all multiplying media (for example,
when the source already includes them), use the keyword “fissionMult=0”.
For problems where the library has photon data but none of the tallies
require photons, use the keyword “secondaryMult=0” to stop the creation
of secondary photons from neutrons. In CE problems, the number of
fission neutrons and secondary gammas can be simulated as one particle
of each type having a high weight (“fissionMult=1”, “secondaryMult=1”)
or as many particles as the physical yield for the reaction would
dictate (“fissionMult=2”, “secondaryMult=2”), each with a weight
corresponding to their probability of emission. If the user requests
option 2 and the particle bank becomes too large, Monaco will drop the
settings back to option 1. In MULTIGROUP, values of 1 and 2 are both
treated as 1.h]h/XThe default behavior for Monaco is to create neutrons from fission
events and create secondary gammas from neutron collisions. To turn off
the creation of fission neutrons in all multiplying media (for example,
when the source already includes them), use the keyword “fissionMult=0”.
For problems where the library has photon data but none of the tallies
require photons, use the keyword “secondaryMult=0” to stop the creation
of secondary photons from neutrons. In CE problems, the number of
fission neutrons and secondary gammas can be simulated as one particle
of each type having a high weight (“fissionMult=1”, “secondaryMult=1”)
or as many particles as the physical yield for the reaction would
dictate (“fissionMult=2”, “secondaryMult=2”), each with a weight
corresponding to their probability of emission. If the user requests
option 2 and the particle bank becomes too large, Monaco will drop the
settings back to option 1. In MULTIGROUP, values of 1 and 2 are both
treated as 1.}(hjFh jFhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM h jEhhubj)}(hread parameters
randomSeed=003ecd7b4e3e8b
perBatch=100000 batches=100 maxMinutes=1440.0
fissionMult=0
end parametersh]h/read parameters
randomSeed=003ecd7b4e3e8b
perBatch=100000 batches=100 maxMinutes=1440.0
fissionMult=0
end parameters}(hhh jFubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjuhjh!h"hM h jEhhubh;)}(hXRIn complex geometries, particles can sometimes “get lost” due to
round-off errors in the ray-tracing. This would normally result in the
code stopping, since lost particles usually indicate an undefined or
doubly defined region of space. In order to tolerate a few lost
particles without stopping the code, use the keyword “maximumLost=”.
Care should be taken not to increase this just to get around poorly
defined geometry. To aid in geometry testing, the keyword
“voidAllRegions” can be used. This keyword sets every region material to
void so that tracks can stream through without interacting (faster). A
large source and this keyword can be used to test a geometry input for
gaps and overlaps. When the “voidAllRegions” keyword is used, mesh tally
files will not contain material information, only the unit and region
information.h]h/XRIn complex geometries, particles can sometimes “get lost” due to
round-off errors in the ray-tracing. This would normally result in the
code stopping, since lost particles usually indicate an undefined or
doubly defined region of space. In order to tolerate a few lost
particles without stopping the code, use the keyword “maximumLost=”.
Care should be taken not to increase this just to get around poorly
defined geometry. To aid in geometry testing, the keyword
“voidAllRegions” can be used. This keyword sets every region material to
void so that tracks can stream through without interacting (faster). A
large source and this keyword can be used to test a geometry input for
gaps and overlaps. When the “voidAllRegions” keyword is used, mesh tally
files will not contain material information, only the unit and region
information.}(hjFh jFhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM h jEhhubh;)}(hXNote that for both CE and MULTIGROUP, using fissionMult=0 only turns off
the creation of neutrons from fission. The fission photons are
controlled by the secondaryMult setting because some of the ENDF data
evaluations do not separate fission gammas from other neutron collision
gammas.When using a mesh-based importance map, if a particle is outside
the importance map, the code will stop with the message “Could not find
particle importance. The particle is outside of the importance map.” If
the importance map does not cover the entire problem, then the tallies
may be missing part of their final values. If the user intends to use an
importance map that does not cover the entire geometry and wants
particles outside the importance map to have zero importance (they will
then be killed), then the keyword “allowShortImpMap” can be used to
allow the use of a “short” importance map. Users must be sure that areas
outside the importance map are unimportant to the problem.h]h/XNote that for both CE and MULTIGROUP, using fissionMult=0 only turns off
the creation of neutrons from fission. The fission photons are
controlled by the secondaryMult setting because some of the ENDF data
evaluations do not separate fission gammas from other neutron collision
gammas.When using a mesh-based importance map, if a particle is outside
the importance map, the code will stop with the message “Could not find
particle importance. The particle is outside of the importance map.” If
the importance map does not cover the entire problem, then the tallies
may be missing part of their final values. If the user intends to use an
importance map that does not cover the entire geometry and wants
particles outside the importance map to have zero importance (they will
then be killed), then the keyword “allowShortImpMap” can be used to
allow the use of a “short” importance map. Users must be sure that areas
outside the importance map are unimportant to the problem.}(hj,Fh j*Fhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM h jEhhubeh}(h]parameter-blockah]h]parameter blockah]h]uhh#h jBhhh!h"hMh ubh$)}(hhh](h))}(h
Biasing Blockh]h/
Biasing Block}(hjEFh jCFhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h j@Fhhh!h"hM ubh;)}(hX0The optional biasing block lists the parameters for the standard Monaco
variance reduction tools: forced collisions, region-based weight
windows, and path-length stretching. This block also allows for the use
of a previously made Monaco mesh importance map, such as those produced
by the MAVRIC sequence.h]h/X0The optional biasing block lists the parameters for the standard Monaco
variance reduction tools: forced collisions, region-based weight
windows, and path-length stretching. This block also allows for the use
of a previously made Monaco mesh importance map, such as those produced
by the MAVRIC sequence.}(hjSFh jQFhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM h j@Fhhubh$)}(hhh](h))}(hForced collisionsh]h/Forced collisions}(hjdFh jbFhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h j_Fhhh!h"hM ubh;)}(hXkForced collisions are one of the simplest variance reduction techniques.
This makes a particle have a collision along its current flight
direction before leaving the geometry. The collision is forced and the
particle weight is reduced by the true probability of having a collision
within the geometry. This is helpful in small or low-density geometries
where many particles leave without interacting but can add computation
time to ordinary problems. To use forced collisions, specify the
“forcedCollisions” keyword. This requires the use of Russian roulette
(“targetWeights” and “lowerWeights”, see below).h]h/XkForced collisions are one of the simplest variance reduction techniques.
This makes a particle have a collision along its current flight
direction before leaving the geometry. The collision is forced and the
particle weight is reduced by the true probability of having a collision
within the geometry. This is helpful in small or low-density geometries
where many particles leave without interacting but can add computation
time to ordinary problems. To use forced collisions, specify the
“forcedCollisions” keyword. This requires the use of Russian roulette
(“targetWeights” and “lowerWeights”, see below).}(hjrFh jpFhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM h j_Fhhubeh}(h]forced-collisionsah]h]forced collisionsah]h]uhh#h j@Fhhh!h"hM ubh$)}(hhh](h))}(hWeight windowsh]h/Weight windows}(hjFh jFhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h jFhhh!h"hM ubh;)}(hXaMonaco can use Russian roulette for preventing low particle weights from
being followed and splitting to prevent the production of very high
weight particles. Either of these requires the target weight values
(“targetWeights … end”) for each energy group and for each region to be
listed. For CE calculations, the energy bin boundaries are specified
with the keywords “nEnergyBoundsID=” and “pEnergyBoundsID=”. For Russian
roulette, the lower weight bounds must be specified (“lowerWeights …
end”) and for splitting the upper weight bounds are listed
(“upperWeights … end”). The different weight arrays can have a length
matching (1) the product of the number of energy groups and the number
of regions, (2) the number of regions, or (3) the number of energy
groups. In case 2, the values are repeated for each energy group. In
case 3, the values are repeated for each region. For example, to specify
only Russian roulette in a coupled neutron-photon problem with target
and lower weights the same in each region the following is used. An
example using the 27/19 multigroup library would beh]h/XaMonaco can use Russian roulette for preventing low particle weights from
being followed and splitting to prevent the production of very high
weight particles. Either of these requires the target weight values
(“targetWeights … end”) for each energy group and for each region to be
listed. For CE calculations, the energy bin boundaries are specified
with the keywords “nEnergyBoundsID=” and “pEnergyBoundsID=”. For Russian
roulette, the lower weight bounds must be specified (“lowerWeights …
end”) and for splitting the upper weight bounds are listed
(“upperWeights … end”). The different weight arrays can have a length
matching (1) the product of the number of energy groups and the number
of regions, (2) the number of regions, or (3) the number of energy
groups. In case 2, the values are repeated for each energy group. In
case 3, the values are repeated for each region. For example, to specify
only Russian roulette in a coupled neutron-photon problem with target
and lower weights the same in each region the following is used. An
example using the 27/19 multigroup library would be}(hjFh jFhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM h jFhhubj)}(hbread biasing
targetWeights 27r1.0 19r0.1 end
lowerWeights 27r0.1 19r0.01 end
end biasingh]h/bread biasing
targetWeights 27r1.0 19r0.1 end
lowerWeights 27r0.1 19r0.01 end
end biasing}(hhh jFubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjuhjh!h"hM h jFhhubh;)}(hand for a CE calculationh]h/and for a CE calculation}(hjFh jFhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM h jFhhubj)}(hread definitions
energyBounds 1 27n end energyBounds
energyBounds 2 19p end energyBounds
end definitions
read biasing
nEnergyBoundsID=1 pEnergyBoundsID=2
targetWeights 27r1.0 19r0.1 end
lowerWeights 27r0.1 19r0.01 end
end biasingh]h/read definitions
energyBounds 1 27n end energyBounds
energyBounds 2 19p end energyBounds
end definitions
read biasing
nEnergyBoundsID=1 pEnergyBoundsID=2
targetWeights 27r1.0 19r0.1 end
lowerWeights 27r0.1 19r0.01 end
end biasing}(hhh jFubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjuhjh!h"hM h jFhhubh;)}(hXAlternatively, to use Russian roulette and splitting, the target weights
and a window ratio (“windowRatio=”) can be specified. The window ratio
is simply the ratio of the weight window upper bound to the weight
window lower bound, with the target weight being the average of the
upper and lower. If target weights :math:`\overline{w}` and a window
ratio *r* are supplied, then the lower and upper weight bounds are found
by usingh](h/X>Alternatively, to use Russian roulette and splitting, the target weights
and a window ratio (“windowRatio=”) can be specified. The window ratio
is simply the ratio of the weight window upper bound to the weight
window lower bound, with the target weight being the average of the
upper and lower. If target weights }(hX>Alternatively, to use Russian roulette and splitting, the target weights
and a window ratio (“windowRatio=”) can be specified. The window ratio
is simply the ratio of the weight window upper bound to the weight
window lower bound, with the target weight being the average of the
upper and lower. If target weights h jFhhh!NhNubh)}(h:math:`\overline{w}`h]h/\overline{w}}(hhh jFubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jFubh/ and a window
ratio }(h and a window
ratio h jFhhh!NhNubhA)}(h*r*h]h/r}(hhh jFubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jFubh/H are supplied, then the lower and upper weight bounds are found
by using}(hH are supplied, then the lower and upper weight bounds are found
by usingh jFhhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM h jFhhubh)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hequation-monaco-21uhh
h jFhhh!h"hNubj)}(h/w_{\mathrm{\min}} = \frac{2}{r + 1}\overline{w}h]h//w_{\mathrm{\min}} = \frac{2}{r + 1}\overline{w}}(hhh jGubah}(h]j
Gah]h]h]h]docnamejnumberKlabel Monaco-21nowrapjjuhjh!h"hM
h jFhhj}j}j
GjGsubh)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hequation-monaco-22uhh
h jFhhh!h"hNubj)}(h0w_{\mathrm{\max}} = \frac{2r}{r + 1}\overline{w}h]h/0w_{\mathrm{\max}} = \frac{2r}{r + 1}\overline{w}}(hhh j-Gubah}(h]j,Gah]h]h]h]docnamejnumberKlabel Monaco-22nowrapjjuhjh!h"hM
h jFhhj}j}j,Gj#Gsubh;)}(hIf only the window ratio is supplied, both Russian roulette and
splitting will be turned on with the target weights for every energy
group and every region set to 1.h]h/If only the window ratio is supplied, both Russian roulette and
splitting will be turned on with the target weights for every energy
group and every region set to 1.}(hjDGh jBGhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM
h jFhhubh;)}(hXA target weight of 0 will prevent particles of that energy group in that
region from being transported. For example, to perform a neutron-only
calculation using a coupled neutron-photon library, simply set the
target weight values for all of the photon groups in every region to 0.
The user should be careful not to “turn off” energy groups or regions
that may impact (bias incorrectly) the final tally results.h]h/XA target weight of 0 will prevent particles of that energy group in that
region from being transported. For example, to perform a neutron-only
calculation using a coupled neutron-photon library, simply set the
target weight values for all of the photon groups in every region to 0.
The user should be careful not to “turn off” energy groups or regions
that may impact (bias incorrectly) the final tally results.}(hjRGh jPGhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM
h jFhhubh;)}(hX%Monaco always uses the implicit capture technique—at collision sites
absorption is not simulated but instead the particle weight is reduced
by the ratio of the scatter probability to the total interaction
probability. Particles only stop if they escape the defined geometry.
This generally produces tally results with lower uncertainties in less
time, but for highly scattering or very large geometries, particles with
very low weights will be tracked until their weight reaches the lower
limit of real numbers in double precision. This is not typically what
the user wants. So, for problems that are not using any weight windows
or importance map, Russian roulette and splitting are automatically
turned on using the a target weight of 1 for every energy group and
every region and a window ratio of 5.h]h/X%Monaco always uses the implicit capture technique—at collision sites
absorption is not simulated but instead the particle weight is reduced
by the ratio of the scatter probability to the total interaction
probability. Particles only stop if they escape the defined geometry.
This generally produces tally results with lower uncertainties in less
time, but for highly scattering or very large geometries, particles with
very low weights will be tracked until their weight reaches the lower
limit of real numbers in double precision. This is not typically what
the user wants. So, for problems that are not using any weight windows
or importance map, Russian roulette and splitting are automatically
turned on using the a target weight of 1 for every energy group and
every region and a window ratio of 5.}(hj`Gh j^Ghhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM
h jFhhubeh}(h]weight-windowsah]h]weight windowsah]h]uhh#h j@Fhhh!h"hM ubh$)}(hhh](h))}(hPath-length stretchingh]h/Path-length stretching}(hjyGh jwGhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h jtGhhh!h"hM%
ubh;)}(hXVPath-length stretching allows particles going a certain direction to
travel farther (with reduced weight) before interacting. Seventeen
different directions are available, as listed in the Table 8.2.10. One
of the directions is specified by using the “direction=” keyword and one
of the direction strings listed in Table 8.2.10, in quotes. The amount
of stretching is specified using the “pathStretch … end” array, with
values between 0 (no stretching) and 1 (lots of stretching), for each
energy group and region. Items can be listed in any order. Similar to
the weight window arrays, the “pathStretch” array can have a length
matching (1) the product of the number of energy groups and the number
of regions, (2) the number of regions, or (3) the number of energy
groups. Values are repeated to fill in all of the regions and groups.h]h/XVPath-length stretching allows particles going a certain direction to
travel farther (with reduced weight) before interacting. Seventeen
different directions are available, as listed in the Table 8.2.10. One
of the directions is specified by using the “direction=” keyword and one
of the direction strings listed in Table 8.2.10, in quotes. The amount
of stretching is specified using the “pathStretch … end” array, with
values between 0 (no stretching) and 1 (lots of stretching), for each
energy group and region. Items can be listed in any order. Similar to
the weight window arrays, the “pathStretch” array can have a length
matching (1) the product of the number of energy groups and the number
of regions, (2) the number of regions, or (3) the number of energy
groups. Values are repeated to fill in all of the regions and groups.}(hjGh jGhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM'
h jtGhhubj)}(h_read biasing
pathStretch 46r0.5 46r0.6 46r0.75 end
direction=”localZp”
end biasingh]h/_read biasing
pathStretch 46r0.5 46r0.6 46r0.75 end
direction=”localZp”
end biasing}(hhh jGubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjuhjh!h"hM6
h jtGhhubh;)}(hXWhen stretching toward a given location (direction=“location”), then the
location ID number must be specified using the “locationID=” keyword.
For CE calculations, energy boundary objects need to be defined using
the keywords “nEnergyBoundsID=” and “pEnergyBoundsID=”.h]h/XWhen stretching toward a given location (direction=“location”), then the
location ID number must be specified using the “locationID=” keyword.
For CE calculations, energy boundary objects need to be defined using
the keywords “nEnergyBoundsID=” and “pEnergyBoundsID=”.}(hjGh jGhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM;
h jtGhhubj)}(hhh](h))}(h/Directions available for path-length stretchingh]h//Directions available for path-length stretching}(hjGh jGubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h!h"hM@
h jGubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]jiK2uhjh jGubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]jiK2uhjh jGubj=)}(hhh]j)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]j)}(hhh]j)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]colwidthK
uhjh jGubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]colwidthK(uhjh jGubj)}(hhh]j)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h Directionh]h/ Direction}(hjHh jHubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hME
h jGubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jGubj)}(hhh]h;)}(hCommenth]h/Comment}(hjHh jHubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hME
h jHubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jGubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jGubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jGubj=)}(hhh](j)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h``localXp``h]j
)}(hjCHh]h/localXp}(hhh jEHubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jAHubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMG
h j>Hubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j;Hubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h!+x direction in local coordinatesh]h/!+x direction in local coordinates}(hjcHh jaHubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMG
h j^Hubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j;Hubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j8Hubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h``localYp``h]j
)}(hjHh]h/localYp}(hhh jHubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jHubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMI
h j~Hubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j{Hubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h!+y direction in local coordinatesh]h/!+y direction in local coordinates}(hjHh jHubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMI
h jHubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j{Hubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j8Hubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h``localZp``h]j
)}(hjHh]h/localZp}(hhh jHubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jHubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMK
h jHubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jHubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h!+z direction in local coordinatesh]h/!+z direction in local coordinates}(hjHh jHubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMK
h jHubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jHubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j8Hubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h``localXm``h]j
)}(hjIh]h/localXm}(hhh jIubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jIubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMM
h jHubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jHubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h!-x direction in local coordinatesh]h/!-x direction in local coordinates}(hj#Ih j!Iubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMM
h jIubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jHubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j8Hubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h``localYm``h]j
)}(hjCIh]h/localYm}(hhh jEIubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jAIubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMO
h j>Iubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j;Iubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h!-y direction in local coordinatesh]h/!-y direction in local coordinates}(hjcIh jaIubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMO
h j^Iubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j;Iubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j8Hubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h``localZm``h]j
)}(hjIh]h/localZm}(hhh jIubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jIubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMQ
h j~Iubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j{Iubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h!-z direction in local coordinatesh]h/!-z direction in local coordinates}(hjIh jIubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMQ
h jIubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j{Iubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j8Hubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h``localYZ``h]j
)}(hjIh]h/localYZ}(hhh jIubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jIubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMS
h jIubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jIubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h&cylindrically away from x-axis (local)h]h/&cylindrically away from x-axis (local)}(hjIh jIubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMS
h jIubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jIubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j8Hubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h``localXZ``h]j
)}(hjJh]h/localXZ}(hhh jJubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jJubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMU
h jIubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jIubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h&cylindrically away from y-axis (local)h]h/&cylindrically away from y-axis (local)}(hj#Jh j!Jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMU
h jJubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jIubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j8Hubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h``localXY``h]j
)}(hjCJh]h/localXY}(hhh jEJubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jAJubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMW
h j>Jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j;Jubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h&cylindrically away from z-axis (local)h]h/&cylindrically away from z-axis (local)}(hjcJh jaJubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMW
h j^Jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j;Jubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j8Hubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj<h jGubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]colsKuhjh jGubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jijjuhjh jGubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jGubj)}(hhh]j)}(hhh]j)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]colwidthKuhjh jJubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]colwidthK?uhjh jJubj)}(hhh]j)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h Directionh]h/ Direction}(hjJh jJubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMZ
h jJubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jJubj)}(hhh]h;)}(hCommenth]h/Comment}(hjJh jJubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMZ
h jJubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jJubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jJubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jJubj=)}(hhh](j)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h``globalXp``h]j
)}(hjJh]h/globalXp}(hhh jJubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jJubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM\
h jJubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jJubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h"+x direction in global coordinatesh]h/"+x direction in global coordinates}(hjKh jKubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM\
h jKubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jJubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jJubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h``globalYp``h]j
)}(hjKubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j:Kubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM^
h j7Kubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j4Kubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h"+y direction in global coordinatesh]h/"+y direction in global coordinates}(hj\Kh jZKubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM^
h jWKubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j4Kubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jJubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h``globalZp``h]j
)}(hj|Kh]h/globalZp}(hhh j~Kubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jzKubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM`
h jwKubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jtKubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h"+z direction in global coordinatesh]h/"+z direction in global coordinates}(hjKh jKubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM`
h jKubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jtKubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jJubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h``globalXm``h]j
)}(hjKh]h/globalXm}(hhh jKubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jKubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMb
h jKubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jKubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h"-x direction in global coordinatesh]h/"-x direction in global coordinates}(hjKh jKubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMb
h jKubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jKubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jJubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h``globalYm``h]j
)}(hjKh]h/globalYm}(hhh jKubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jKubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMd
h jKubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jKubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h"-y direction in global coordinatesh]h/"-y direction in global coordinates}(hjLh jLubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMd
h jLubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jKubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jJubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h``globalZm``h]j
)}(hjLubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j:Lubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMf
h j7Lubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j4Lubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h"-z direction in global coordinatesh]h/"-z direction in global coordinates}(hj\Lh jZLubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMf
h jWLubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j4Lubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jJubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h``outward``h]j
)}(hj|Lh]h/outward}(hhh j~Lubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jzLubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh
h jwLubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jtLubj)}(hhh]h;)}(hspherically outward (local)h]h/spherically outward (local)}(hjLh jLubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh
h jLubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jtLubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jJubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h``location``h]j
)}(hjLh]h/location}(hhh jLubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jLubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMj
h jLubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jLubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h=in the direction of a given location (requires a locationID)h]h/=in the direction of a given location (requires a locationID)}(hjLh jLubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMj
h jLubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jLubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jJubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj<h jJubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]colsKuhjh jJubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jijjuhjh jJubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jGubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jGubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj<h jGubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]colsKuhjh jGubeh}(h]tab8-10ah]h]tab8-10ah]h]jicenteruhjh jtGhhh!NhNubeh}(h]path-length-stretchingah]h]path-length stretchingah]h]uhh#h j@Fhhh!h"hM%
ubh$)}(hhh](h))}(hMesh-based importance maph]h/Mesh-based importance map}(hj6Mh j4Mhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h j1Mhhh!h"hMn
ubh;)}(hXnThe user can alternatively specify an existing Monaco mesh-based
importance map—a binary file created by a previous MAVRIC calculation.
The mesh importance map must be a binary file using the Monaco mesh
importance map format (a \*.mim file). This option is specified with the
“meshImpMapFile=” keyword and the file name (and full path if necessary)
in quotes.h]h/XnThe user can alternatively specify an existing Monaco mesh-based
importance map—a binary file created by a previous MAVRIC calculation.
The mesh importance map must be a binary file using the Monaco mesh
importance map format (a *.mim file). This option is specified with the
“meshImpMapFile=” keyword and the file name (and full path if necessary)
in quotes.}(hXnThe user can alternatively specify an existing Monaco mesh-based
importance map—a binary file created by a previous MAVRIC calculation.
The mesh importance map must be a binary file using the Monaco mesh
importance map format (a \*.mim file). This option is specified with the
“meshImpMapFile=” keyword and the file name (and full path if necessary)
in quotes.h jBMhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMp
h j1Mhhubj)}(hkread biasing
meshImpMapFile=”c:\mydocu~1\previouslyMadeImpMap.mim”
windowRatio=10.0
end biasingh]h/kread biasing
meshImpMapFile=”c:\mydocu~1\previouslyMadeImpMap.mim”
windowRatio=10.0
end biasing}(hhh jQMubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjuhjh!h"hMy
h j1Mhhubh;)}(hIf the “meshImpMapFile=” keyword is used, most other biasing block
keywords cannot be used. The keyword “windowRatio=” can be used and its
default value is five.h]h/If the “meshImpMapFile=” keyword is used, most other biasing block
keywords cannot be used. The keyword “windowRatio=” can be used and its
default value is five.}(hjaMh j_Mhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM~
h j1Mhhubh;)}(hXIf particles leave the importance map but are still in the defined
geometry, the simulation will be stopped. If the user wants to allow
importance maps that do not cover the entire problem, the keyword
“allowShortImpMap” should be used in the parameters block. In that case,
areas outside the mesh importance map will be treated as completely
unimportant—particles will be killed outside the mesh.h]h/XIf particles leave the importance map but are still in the defined
geometry, the simulation will be stopped. If the user wants to allow
importance maps that do not cover the entire problem, the keyword
“allowShortImpMap” should be used in the parameters block. In that case,
areas outside the mesh importance map will be treated as completely
unimportant—particles will be killed outside the mesh.}(hjoMh jmMhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM
h j1Mhhubh;)}(hXNote that for the most effective use of an importance map, the source
should be biased to match. This is what the MAVRIC sequence does – it
produces a biased source such that sampled particles are born with a
weight matching the target weight of the importance map.h]h/XNote that for the most effective use of an importance map, the source
should be biased to match. This is what the MAVRIC sequence does – it
produces a biased source such that sampled particles are born with a
weight matching the target weight of the importance map.}(hj}Mh j{Mhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM
h j1Mhhubeh}(h]mesh-based-importance-mapah]h]mesh-based importance mapah]h]uhh#h j@Fhhh!h"hMn
ubh$)}(hhh](h))}(hMonaco input summaryh]h/Monaco input summary}(hjMh jMhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h jMhhh!h"hM
ubh;)}(hFBelow are summaries of the Monaco blocks and their available keywords.h]h/FBelow are summaries of the Monaco blocks and their available keywords.}(hjMh jMhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM
h jMhhubj)}(hhh](h))}(h$Keywords for the cross section blockh]h/$Keywords for the cross section block}(hjMh jMubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h!h"hM
h jMubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]jiKduhjh jMubj=)}(hhh]j)}(hhh]j)}(hhh]j)}(h".. image:: figs/Monaco/tab8-11.pngh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]urifigs/Monaco/tab8-11.pngj.}j0jMsuhjh jMh!h"hKubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jMubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jMubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj<h jMubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]colsKuhjh jMubeh}(h]tab8-11ah]h]tab8-11ah]h]jicenteruhjh jMhhh!NhNubj)}(hhh](h))}(h"Keywords for the definitions blockh]h/"Keywords for the definitions block}(hj
Nh jNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h!h"hM
h jNubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]jiKduhjh jNubj=)}(hhh]j)}(hhh]j)}(hhh]j)}(h".. image:: figs/Monaco/tab8-12.pngh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]urifigs/Monaco/tab8-12.pngj.}j0j6Nsuhjh j(Nh!h"hKubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j%Nubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j"Nubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj<h jNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]colsKuhjh jNubeh}(h]tab8-12ah]h]tab8-12ah]h]jicenteruhjh jMhhh!NhNubj)}(hhh](h))}(h'More keywords for the definitions blockh]h/'More keywords for the definitions block}(hj_Nh j]Nubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h!h"hM
h jZNubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]jiKduhjh jkNubj=)}(hhh]j)}(hhh]j)}(hhh]j)}(h".. image:: figs/Monaco/tab8-13.pngh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]urifigs/Monaco/tab8-13.pngj.}j0jNsuhjh j}Nh!h"hKubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jzNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jwNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj<h jkNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]colsKuhjh jZNubeh}(h]tab8-13ah]h]tab8-13ah]h]jicenteruhjh jMhhh!NhNubj)}(hhh](h))}(h,Even more keywords for the definitions blockh]h/,Even more keywords for the definitions block}(hjNh jNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h!h"hM
h jNubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]jiKduhjh jNubj=)}(hhh]j)}(hhh]j)}(hhh]j)}(h".. image:: figs/Monaco/tab8-14.pngh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]urifigs/Monaco/tab8-14.pngj.}j0jNsuhjh jNh!h"hKubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj<h jNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]colsKuhjh jNubeh}(h]tab8-14ah]h]tab8-14ah]h]jicenteruhjh jMhhh!NhNubj)}(hhh](h))}(h7Special distribution keywords for the definitions blockh]h/7Special distribution keywords for the definitions block}(hj Oh jOubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h!h"hM
h jOubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]jiKduhjh jOubj=)}(hhh]j)}(hhh]j)}(hhh]j)}(h".. image:: figs/Monaco/tab8-15.pngh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]urifigs/Monaco/tab8-15.pngj.}j0j5Osuhjh j'Oh!h"hKubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j$Oubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j!Oubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj<h jOubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]colsKuhjh jOubeh}(h]tab8-15ah]h]tab8-15ah]h]jicenteruhjh jMhhh!NhNubj)}(hhh](h))}(h4Continuous energy keywords for the definitions blockh]h/4Continuous energy keywords for the definitions block}(hj^Oh j\Oubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h!h"hM
h jYOubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]jiKduhjh jjOubj=)}(hhh]j)}(hhh]j)}(hhh]j)}(h".. image:: figs/Monaco/tab8-16.pngh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]urifigs/Monaco/tab8-16.pngj.}j0jOsuhjh j|Oh!h"hKubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jyOubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jvOubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj<h jjOubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]colsKuhjh jYOubeh}(h]tab8-16ah]h]tab8-16ah]h]jicenteruhjh jMhhh!NhNubj)}(hhh](h))}(hKeywords for the sources blockh]h/Keywords for the sources block}(hjOh jOubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h!h"hM
h jOubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]jiKduhjh jOubj=)}(hhh]j)}(hhh]j)}(hhh]j)}(h".. image:: figs/Monaco/tab8-17.pngh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]urifigs/Monaco/tab8-17.pngj.}j0jOsuhjh jOh!h"hKubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jOubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jOubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj<h jOubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]colsKuhjh jOubeh}(h]tab8-17ah]h]tab8-17ah]h]jicenteruhjh jMhhh!NhNubj)}(hhh](h))}(h#More keywords for the sources blockh]h/#More keywords for the sources block}(hjPh jPubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h!h"hM
h jPubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]jiKduhjh jPubj=)}(hhh]j)}(hhh]j)}(hhh]j)}(h".. image:: figs/Monaco/tab8-18.pngh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]urifigs/Monaco/tab8-18.pngj.}j0j4Psuhjh j&Ph!h"hKubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j#Pubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j Pubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj<h jPubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]colsKuhjh jPubeh}(h]tab8-18ah]h]tab8-18ah]h]jicenteruhjh jMhhh!NhNubj)}(hhh](h))}(hKeywords for the tallies blockh]h/Keywords for the tallies block}(hj]Ph j[Pubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h!h"hM
h jXPubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]jiKduhjh jiPubj=)}(hhh]j)}(hhh]j)}(hhh]j)}(h".. image:: figs/Monaco/tab8-19.pngh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]urifigs/Monaco/tab8-19.pngj.}j0jPsuhjh j{Ph!h"hKubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jxPubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh juPubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj<h jiPubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]colsKuhjh jXPubeh}(h]tab8-19ah]h]tab8-19ah]h]jicenteruhjh jMhhh!NhNubj)}(hhh](h))}(h!Keywords for the parameters blockh]h/!Keywords for the parameters block}(hjPh jPubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h!h"hM
h jPubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]jiKduhjh jPubj=)}(hhh]j)}(hhh]j)}(hhh]j)}(h".. image:: figs/Monaco/tab8-20.pngh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]urifigs/Monaco/tab8-20.pngj.}j0jPsuhjh jPh!h"hKubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jPubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jPubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj<h jPubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]colsKuhjh jPubeh}(h]tab8-20ah]h]tab8-20ah]h]jicenteruhjh jMhhh!NhNubj)}(hhh](h))}(hKeywords for the biasing blockh]h/Keywords for the biasing block}(hjQh jQubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h!h"hM
h jQubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]jiKduhjh jQubj=)}(hhh]j)}(hhh]j)}(hhh]j)}(h".. image:: figs/Monaco/tab8-21.pngh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]urifigs/Monaco/tab8-21.pngj.}j0j3Qsuhjh j%Qh!h"hKubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j"Qubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jQubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj<h jQubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]colsKuhjh jQubeh}(h]tab8-21ah]h]tab8-21ah]h]jicenteruhjh jMhhh!NhNubeh}(h]monaco-input-summaryah]h]monaco input summaryah]h]uhh#h j@Fhhh!h"hM
ubeh}(h]
biasing-blockah]h]
biasing blockah]h]uhh#h jBhhh!h"hM ubeh}(h]monaco-input-filesah]h]monaco input filesah]h]uhh#h h%hhh!h"hMubh$)}(hhh](h))}(h
Monaco Outputh]h/
Monaco Output}(hjtQh jrQhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h joQhhh!h"hM
ubh$)}(hhh](h))}(hMain text output fileh]h/Main text output file}(hjQh jQhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h jQhhh!h"hM
ubh;)}(hXKThe Monaco output file first reviews the input Monaco received. First is
a review of the geometry—showing which materials are used in each region
and the volume of that region, if input or calculated. Then there is a
detailed list of other Monaco input: cross-section parameters, data
definitions, the sources, the tallies, the Monte Carlo parameters, and
the biasing parameters. For calculations using an importance map, its
summary is also given. The “Mesh Importance Map Characterization” shows
where the importance map may be changing too fast and may require more
refinement.h]h/XKThe Monaco output file first reviews the input Monaco received. First is
a review of the geometry—showing which materials are used in each region
and the volume of that region, if input or calculated. Then there is a
detailed list of other Monaco input: cross-section parameters, data
definitions, the sources, the tallies, the Monte Carlo parameters, and
the biasing parameters. For calculations using an importance map, its
summary is also given. The “Mesh Importance Map Characterization” shows
where the importance map may be changing too fast and may require more
refinement.}(hjQh jQhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM
h jQhhubh;)}(hXFor each batch of source particles simulated, the output file lists the
batch time and the starting random number for the next batch, which may
be useful in rerunning just a portion of a problem. Once all of the
batches are completed, a list of the various tally files that have been
created is given. Finally, the tallies are summarized in a section
titled “Final Tally Results Summary”. For each point detector, the total
neutron and photon fluxes (uncollided and total) are given as well as
the final response values for each response function. For each region
tally, the total neutron and photon fluxes (both track-length and
collision density estimates) are listed, followed by the final response
values for each response function. Along with each of the final
quantities are the standard deviation of the quantity, the relative
uncertainty, the figure-of-merit and a summary of list of the
statistical checks (passed or not).h]h/XFor each batch of source particles simulated, the output file lists the
batch time and the starting random number for the next batch, which may
be useful in rerunning just a portion of a problem. Once all of the
batches are completed, a list of the various tally files that have been
created is given. Finally, the tallies are summarized in a section
titled “Final Tally Results Summary”. For each point detector, the total
neutron and photon fluxes (uncollided and total) are given as well as
the final response values for each response function. For each region
tally, the total neutron and photon fluxes (both track-length and
collision density estimates) are listed, followed by the final response
values for each response function. Along with each of the final
quantities are the standard deviation of the quantity, the relative
uncertainty, the figure-of-merit and a summary of list of the
statistical checks (passed or not).}(hjQh jQhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM
h jQhhubeh}(h]main-text-output-fileah]h]main text output fileah]h]uhh#h joQhhh!h"hM
ubh$)}(hhh](h))}(hTally filesh]h/Tally files}(hjQh jQhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h jQhhh!h"hM
ubh;)}(hXIn addition to the summary of tallies contained in the Monaco text
output file, many other files are created containing the group‑by‑group
details of the final tally data. Each mesh tally produces a file
“\ *outputName*.mt\ *id*.3dmap” where *outputName* is the name the user
chose for his output file and “\ *id*\ ” is the identification number
corresponding to the tally specification. This file can be viewed using
the Mesh File Viewer capability of Fulcrum. Point detector tallies and
region tallies each create files “\ *outputName*.pd\ *id*.txt” or
“\ *outputName*.rt\ *id*.txt” to list the group‑by‑group results. They
also produce chart files, “\ *outputName*.pd\ *id*.chart” or
“\ *outputName*.rt\ *id*.chart”, which contain the total neutron flux,
the total photon flux, and the total response function value calculated
at the end of each batch. This data can be used to look at tally
convergence and can be viewed with the Interactive Plotter capabilities
of Fulcrum. :numref:`tab8-22` lists the output files, based on the name of
the main output file (here called *outputName)*, that are available to
the user. These files will be copied back to the directory where SCALE
was executed.h](h/In addition to the summary of tallies contained in the Monaco text
output file, many other files are created containing the group‑by‑group
details of the final tally data. Each mesh tally produces a file
“ }(hIn addition to the summary of tallies contained in the Monaco text
output file, many other files are created containing the group‑by‑group
details of the final tally data. Each mesh tally produces a file
“\ h jQhhh!NhNubhA)}(h*outputName*h]h/
outputName}(hhh jQubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jQubh/.mt }(h.mt\ h jQhhh!NhNubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh jQubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jQubh/.3dmap” where }(h.3dmap” where h jQhhh!NhNubhA)}(h*outputName*h]h/
outputName}(hhh jQubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jQubh/9 is the name the user
chose for his output file and “ }(h9 is the name the user
chose for his output file and “\ h jQhhh!NhNubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh jRubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jQubh/ ” is the identification number
corresponding to the tally specification. This file can be viewed using
the Mesh File Viewer capability of Fulcrum. Point detector tallies and
region tallies each create files “ }(h\ ” is the identification number
corresponding to the tally specification. This file can be viewed using
the Mesh File Viewer capability of Fulcrum. Point detector tallies and
region tallies each create files “\ h jQhhh!NhNubhA)}(h*outputName*h]h/
outputName}(hhh jRubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jQubh/.pd }(h.pd\ h jQhhh!NhNubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh j.Rubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jQubh/.txt” or
“ }(h.txt” or
“\ h jQhhh!NhNubhA)}(h*outputName*h]h/
outputName}(hhh jARubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jQubh/.rt }(h.rt\ h jQhhh!NhNubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh jTRubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jQubh/T.txt” to list the group‑by‑group results. They
also produce chart files, “ }(hT.txt” to list the group‑by‑group results. They
also produce chart files, “\ h jQhhh!NhNubhA)}(h*outputName*h]h/
outputName}(hhh jgRubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jQubh/.pd }(hj-Rh jQubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh jyRubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jQubh/.chart” or
“ }(h.chart” or
“\ h jQhhh!NhNubhA)}(h*outputName*h]h/
outputName}(hhh jRubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jQubh/.rt }(hjSRh jQubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh jRubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jQubh/X.chart”, which contain the total neutron flux,
the total photon flux, and the total response function value calculated
at the end of each batch. This data can be used to look at tally
convergence and can be viewed with the Interactive Plotter capabilities
of Fulcrum. }(hX.chart”, which contain the total neutron flux,
the total photon flux, and the total response function value calculated
at the end of each batch. This data can be used to look at tally
convergence and can be viewed with the Interactive Plotter capabilities
of Fulcrum. h jQhhh!NhNubj)}(h:numref:`tab8-22`h]j
)}(hjRh]h/tab8-22}(hhh jRubah}(h]h](jstd
std-numrefeh]h]h]uhjh jRubah}(h]h]h]h]h]refdocj refdomainjRreftypenumrefrefexplicitrefwarnj*tab8-22uhjh!h"hM
h jQubh/P lists the output files, based on the name of
the main output file (here called }(hP lists the output files, based on the name of
the main output file (here called h jQhhh!NhNubhA)}(h
*outputName)*h]h/outputName)}(hhh jRubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jQubh/l, that are available to
the user. These files will be copied back to the directory where SCALE
was executed.}(hl, that are available to
the user. These files will be copied back to the directory where SCALE
was executed.h jQhhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM
h jQhhubeh}(h]tally-filesah]h]tally filesah]h]uhh#h joQhhh!h"hM
ubh$)}(hhh](h))}(hDiagnostic filesh]h/Diagnostic files}(hjRh jRhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h jRhhh!h"hMubh;)}(hXZThree of the data types defined in the definitions block can create
files or add output to the main text output file to allow the user to
ensure items were interpreted by Monaco as they were intended. Responses
that included the “makeChart” keyword will each produce a file
“\ *outputName*.resp\ *id*.chart”, where “\ *id*\ ” is the response
identification number, which can be displayed using the Interactive
Plotter. Grid geometries that include the keyword “make3dmap” will each
produce a file called “\ *outputName*.grid\ *id*.3dmap”, where
“\ *id*\ ” is the grid geometry identification number, which can be
visualized using the Mesh File Viewer. Likewise, cylindrical geometries
with the keyword “makeCylMap” will create a file called
“\ *outputName*.cyl\ *id*.3dmap”. Distributions using the
“runSampleTest” keyword will produce a file
“\ *outputName*.dist\ *id*.chart”, where “\ *id*\ ” is the response
identification number. The “runSampleTest” results will also be
displayed in the main text output with each distribution listed in the
Monaco input review.h](h/XThree of the data types defined in the definitions block can create
files or add output to the main text output file to allow the user to
ensure items were interpreted by Monaco as they were intended. Responses
that included the “makeChart” keyword will each produce a file
“ }(hXThree of the data types defined in the definitions block can create
files or add output to the main text output file to allow the user to
ensure items were interpreted by Monaco as they were intended. Responses
that included the “makeChart” keyword will each produce a file
“\ h jShhh!NhNubhA)}(h*outputName*h]h/
outputName}(hhh jSubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jSubh/.resp }(h.resp\ h jShhh!NhNubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh j$Subah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jSubh/.chart”, where “ }(h.chart”, where “\ h jShhh!NhNubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh j7Subah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jSubh/ ” is the response
identification number, which can be displayed using the Interactive
Plotter. Grid geometries that include the keyword “make3dmap” will each
produce a file called “ }(h\ ” is the response
identification number, which can be displayed using the Interactive
Plotter. Grid geometries that include the keyword “make3dmap” will each
produce a file called “\ h jShhh!NhNubhA)}(h*outputName*h]h/
outputName}(hhh jJSubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jSubh/.grid }(h.grid\ h jShhh!NhNubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh j]Subah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jSubh/.3dmap”, where
“ }(h.3dmap”, where
“\ h jShhh!NhNubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh jpSubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jSubh/ ” is the grid geometry identification number, which can be
visualized using the Mesh File Viewer. Likewise, cylindrical geometries
with the keyword “makeCylMap” will create a file called
“ }(h\ ” is the grid geometry identification number, which can be
visualized using the Mesh File Viewer. Likewise, cylindrical geometries
with the keyword “makeCylMap” will create a file called
“\ h jShhh!NhNubhA)}(h*outputName*h]h/
outputName}(hhh jSubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jSubh/.cyl }(h.cyl\ h jShhh!NhNubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh jSubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jSubh/X.3dmap”. Distributions using the
“runSampleTest” keyword will produce a file
“ }(hX.3dmap”. Distributions using the
“runSampleTest” keyword will produce a file
“\ h jShhh!NhNubhA)}(h*outputName*h]h/
outputName}(hhh jSubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jSubh/.dist }(h.dist\ h jShhh!NhNubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh jSubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jSubh/.chart”, where “ }(hj6Sh jSubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh jSubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jSubh/ ” is the response
identification number. The “runSampleTest” results will also be
displayed in the main text output with each distribution listed in the
Monaco input review.}(h\ ” is the response
identification number. The “runSampleTest” results will also be
displayed in the main text output with each distribution listed in the
Monaco input review.h jShhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM
h jRhhubh)}(h.. _tab8-22:h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]htab8-22uhh
hMh jRhhh!h"ubj)}(hhh](h))}(hOutput files created by Monacoh]h/Output files created by Monaco}(hjSh jSubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h!h"hM h jSubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]colwidthKuhjh jTubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]colwidthKuhjh jTubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]colwidthKuhjh jTubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]colwidthKuhjh jTubj)}(hhh]j)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h**Filename**h]j)}(hj9Th]h/Filename}(hhh j;Tubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j7Tubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM$h j4Tubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j1Tubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h
**Viewer**h]j)}(hjYTh]h/Viewer}(hhh j[Tubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jWTubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM$h jTTubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j1Tubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h**Description**h]j)}(hjyTh]h/Description}(hhh j{Tubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jwTubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM$h jtTubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j1Tubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j1Tubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j.Tubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jTubj=)}(hhh](j)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(hOutput Summaryh]h/Output Summary}(hjTh jTubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM&h jTubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jTubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jTubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jTubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jTubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jTubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jTubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h*outputName*.ou\
th](hA)}(h*outputName*h]h/
outputName}(hhh jTubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jTubh/.ou
t}(h.ou\
th jTubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM(h jTubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jTubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jTubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h/main text
output file,
contains
results summaryh]h//main text
output file,
contains
results summary}(hj'Uh j%Uubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM(h j"Uubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jTubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jTubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j?Uubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j?Uubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j?Uubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j?Uubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jTubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(hDiagnostic
Filesh]h/Diagnostic
Files}(hjtUh jrUubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM/h joUubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jlUubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jlUubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jlUubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jlUubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jTubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jUubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h*outputName*.re\
sp\ *id*.charth](hA)}(h*outputName*h]h/
outputName}(hhh jUubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jUubh/ .re
sp }(h .re\
sp\ h jUubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh jUubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jUubh/.chart}(h.charth jUubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM2h jUubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jUubj)}(hhh]h;)}(hPh]h/P}(hjUh jUubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM2h jUubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jUubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h>response input
and MULTIGROUP
representation
for response
*id*h](h/:response input
and MULTIGROUP
representation
for response
}(h:response input
and MULTIGROUP
representation
for response
h jVubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh jVubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jVubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM2h jVubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jUubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jTubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j/Vubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h*outputName*.gr\
id\ *id*.3dmaph](hA)}(h*outputName*h]h/
outputName}(hhh jBVubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j>Vubh/ .gr
id }(h .gr\
id\ h j>VubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh jUVubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j>Vubh/.3dmap}(h.3dmaph j>Vubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM8h j;Vubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j/Vubj)}(hhh]h;)}(hVh]h/V}(hjyVh jwVubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM8h jtVubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j/Vubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h1mesh version of
geometry using
grid geometry
*id*h](h/-mesh version of
geometry using
grid geometry
}(h-mesh version of
geometry using
grid geometry
h jVubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh jVubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jVubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM8h jVubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j/Vubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jTubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jVubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h*outputName*.cy\
l\ *id*.3dmaph](hA)}(h*outputName*h]h/
outputName}(hhh jVubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jVubh/.cy
l }(h.cy\
l\ h jVubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh jVubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jVubh/.3dmap}(h.3dmaph jVubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM=h jVubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jVubj)}(hhh]h;)}(hjyVh]h/V}(hjyVh jVubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM=h jVubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jVubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h8mesh version of
geometry using
cylindrical
geometry *id*h](h/4mesh version of
geometry using
cylindrical
geometry }(h4mesh version of
geometry using
cylindrical
geometry h jWubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh jWubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jWubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM=h jWubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jVubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jTubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j>Wubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h*outputName*.di\
st\ *id*.charth](hA)}(h*outputName*h]h/
outputName}(hhh jQWubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jMWubh/ .di
st }(h .di\
st\ h jMWubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh jdWubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jMWubh/.chart}(h.charth jMWubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMBh jJWubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j>Wubj)}(hhh]h;)}(hjUh]h/P}(hjUh jWubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMBh jWubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j>Wubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h:distribution
input and
sampling test
for
distribution
*id*h](h/6distribution
input and
sampling test
for
distribution
}(h6distribution
input and
sampling test
for
distribution
h jWubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh jWubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jWubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMBh jWubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j>Wubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jTubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jWubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jWubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jWubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jWubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jTubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(hMesh Source
Saverh]h/Mesh Source
Saver}(hjWh jWubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMKh jWubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jWubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jWubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jWubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jWubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jTubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j-Xubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h*filename*.msmh](hA)}(h
*filename*h]h/filename}(hhh j@Xubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j\ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h*outputName*.mt\
\ *id*.3dmaph](hA)}(h*outputName*h]h/
outputName}(hhh jQ\ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jM\ubh/.mt
}(h.mt\
\ h jM\ubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh jd\ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jM\ubh/.3dmap}(h.3dmaph jM\ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM}h jJ\ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j>\ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(hjyVh]h/V}(hjyVh j\ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM}h j\ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j>\ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(hmesh tally for
meshTally *id*h](h/mesh tally for
meshTally }(hmesh tally for
meshTally h j\ubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh j\ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j\ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM}h j\ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j>\ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jTubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j\ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h**outputName*.mt\
\ *id*.resp\ *x\
x*.3dmaph](hA)}(h*outputName*h]h/
outputName}(hhh j\ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j\ubh/.mt
}(h.mt\
\ h j\ubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh j\ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j\ubh/.resp }(h.resp\ h j\ubhA)}(h*x\
x*h]h/x
x}(hhh j\ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j\ubh/.3dmap}(h.3dmaph j\ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j\ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j\ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(hjyVh]h/V}(hjyVh j ]ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j]ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j\ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(hAmesh tally of
response by
group for
meshTally *id*,
response *xx*h](h/.mesh tally of
response by
group for
meshTally }(h.mesh tally of
response by
group for
meshTally h j6]ubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh j?]ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j6]ubh/,
response }(h,
response h j6]ubhA)}(h*xx*h]h/xx}(hhh jR]ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j6]ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j3]ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j\ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jTubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jr]ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h *outputName*.mt\
\ *id*.flux.txth](hA)}(h*outputName*h]h/
outputName}(hhh j]ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j]ubh/.mt
}(h.mt\
\ h j]ubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh j]ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j]ubh/ .flux.txt}(h .flux.txth j]ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j~]ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jr]ubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jr]ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h:detailed
results for the
group-wise flux
of meshTally
*id*h](h/6detailed
results for the
group-wise flux
of meshTally
}(h6detailed
results for the
group-wise flux
of meshTally
h j]ubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh j]ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j]ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j]ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jr]ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jTubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j]ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h *outputName*.mt\
\ *id*.tfluxtxth](hA)}(h*outputName*h]h/
outputName}(hhh j]ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j]ubh/.mt
}(h.mt\
\ h j]ubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh j^ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j]ubh/ .tfluxtxt}(h .tfluxtxth j]ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j]ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j]ubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j]ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h1detailed
results for
total flux of
meshTally *id*h](h/-detailed
results for
total flux of
meshTally }(h-detailed
results for
total flux of
meshTally h j=^ubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh jF^ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j=^ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j:^ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j]ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jTubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jf^ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h(*outputName*.mt\
\ *id*.resp\ *x\
x*.txth](hA)}(h*outputName*h]h/
outputName}(hhh jy^ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h ju^ubh/.mt
}(h.mt\
\ h ju^ubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh j^ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h ju^ubh/.resp }(h.resp\ h ju^ubhA)}(h*x\
x*h]h/x
x}(hhh j^ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h ju^ubh/.txt}(h.txth ju^ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jr^ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jf^ubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jf^ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h4detailed
results for
response *xx*
of meshTally
*id*h](h/detailed
results for
response }(hdetailed
results for
response h j^ubhA)}(h*xx*h]h/xx}(hhh j^ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j^ubh/
of meshTally
}(h
of meshTally
h j^ubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh j^ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j^ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j^ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jf^ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jTubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh](h;)}(hFV – can be
displayed with
the Mesh File
Viewer
capabilities
Fulcrum.h]h/FV – can be
displayed with
the Mesh File
Viewer
capabilities
Fulcrum.}(hj_h j_ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j _ubh;)}(hDP – can be
displayed with
the 2D plotting
capabilities of
Fulcrum.h]h/DP – can be
displayed with
the 2D plotting
capabilities of
Fulcrum.}(hj_h j_ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j _ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j_ubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j_ubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j_ubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j_ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jTubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj<h jTubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]colsKuhjh jSubeh}(h](id37jSeh]h]tab8-22ah]h]jicenteruhjh jRhhh!h"hNj}ja_jSsj}jSjSsubeh}(h]diagnostic-filesah]h]diagnostic filesah]h]uhh#h joQhhh!h"hMubh$)}(hhh](h))}(hMesh source saver filesh]h/Mesh source saver files}(hjt_h jr_hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h jo_hhh!h"hMubh;)}(hX;If the Mesh Source Saver was used, one mesh source file will be created
for each defined source. For a single source, the filename will be
whatever was listed with the “filename=” keyword or “source.msm” if
nothing was given. For multiple sources, the filenames will include the
source identification number, such as “source.\ *id*.msm”. If there were
multiple sources and the “makeTotal” keyword was used, the total will be
stored in “source.msm”. Note that if these files are desired, they must
be manually copied back from the SCALE temporary area.h](h/XQIf the Mesh Source Saver was used, one mesh source file will be created
for each defined source. For a single source, the filename will be
whatever was listed with the “filename=” keyword or “source.msm” if
nothing was given. For multiple sources, the filenames will include the
source identification number, such as “source. }(hXQIf the Mesh Source Saver was used, one mesh source file will be created
for each defined source. For a single source, the filename will be
whatever was listed with the “filename=” keyword or “source.msm” if
nothing was given. For multiple sources, the filenames will include the
source identification number, such as “source.\ h j_hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh j_ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j_ubh/.msm”. If there were
multiple sources and the “makeTotal” keyword was used, the total will be
stored in “source.msm”. Note that if these files are desired, they must
be manually copied back from the SCALE temporary area.}(h.msm”. If there were
multiple sources and the “makeTotal” keyword was used, the total will be
stored in “source.msm”. Note that if these files are desired, they must
be manually copied back from the SCALE temporary area.h j_hhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jo_hhubh;)}(hIf the keyword “meshBiasFile=” was used, then for every mesh source
generated above there will also be a biased mesh source that is used in
sampling. These files have the names in the form of
“source.sampling.\ *id*.msm”.h](h/If the keyword “meshBiasFile=” was used, then for every mesh source
generated above there will also be a biased mesh source that is used in
sampling. These files have the names in the form of
“source.sampling. }(hIf the keyword “meshBiasFile=” was used, then for every mesh source
generated above there will also be a biased mesh source that is used in
sampling. These files have the names in the form of
“source.sampling.\ h j_hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh j_ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j_ubh/.msm”.}(h.msm”.h j_hhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jo_hhubeh}(h]mesh-source-saver-filesah]h]mesh source saver filesah]h]uhh#h joQhhh!h"hMubh$)}(hhh](h))}(h7Statistical checks on point detector and region talliesh]h/7Statistical checks on point detector and region tallies}(hj_h j_hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h j_hhh!h"hMubh;)}(hXGWith each region tally and point detector tally, detailed statistical
information is provided in separate files, “\ *outputName*.rt\ *id*.txt”
or “\ *outputName*.pd\ *id*.txt”, just after the group-by-group values
for the fluxes and responses. For the total fluxes and any responses of
each tally, two tables are given.h](h/vWith each region tally and point detector tally, detailed statistical
information is provided in separate files, “ }(hvWith each region tally and point detector tally, detailed statistical
information is provided in separate files, “\ h j_hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*outputName*h]h/
outputName}(hhh j_ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j_ubh/.rt }(h.rt\ h j_hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh j_ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j_ubh/.txt”
or “ }(h.txt”
or “\ h j_hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*outputName*h]h/
outputName}(hhh j`ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j_ubh/.pd }(h.pd\ h j_hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh j`ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j_ubh/.txt”, just after the group-by-group values
for the fluxes and responses. For the total fluxes and any responses of
each tally, two tables are given.}(h.txt”, just after the group-by-group values
for the fluxes and responses. For the total fluxes and any responses of
each tally, two tables are given.h j_hhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j_hhubh;)}(hXFirst, the values of the tally and several statistical quantities are
listed as a function of batch number. With each batch, the statistical
tests are listed by number with one of the following: “X” for passing,
“-” for failing or a blank if the test could not be performed yet. The
second table lists the details of the final statistical checks for the
last batch completed. This table lists the value for each of the six
tests as well as what the goal is for that test.h]h/XFirst, the values of the tally and several statistical quantities are
listed as a function of batch number. With each batch, the statistical
tests are listed by number with one of the following: “X” for passing,
“-” for failing or a blank if the test could not be performed yet. The
second table lists the details of the final statistical checks for the
last batch completed. This table lists the value for each of the six
tests as well as what the goal is for that test.}(hj:`h j8`hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j_hhubh;)}(hXAs an example, consider a 1 Ci point source of Watt spectrum neutrons
inside an *r*\ =20 cm sphere of polyethylene. Two tallies are used to
find the neutron dose rate (rem/hr) 35 cm from the center of the sphere
– a region tally (region between two concentric spheres with radii of 34
and 36 cm) and a point detector 35 cm away from the center of the
sphere. Twenty batches of 1000 particles each were used in this example.h](h/PAs an example, consider a 1 Ci point source of Watt spectrum neutrons
inside an }(hPAs an example, consider a 1 Ci point source of Watt spectrum neutrons
inside an h jF`hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*r*h]h/r}(hhh jO`ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jF`ubh/XV =20 cm sphere of polyethylene. Two tallies are used to
find the neutron dose rate (rem/hr) 35 cm from the center of the sphere
– a region tally (region between two concentric spheres with radii of 34
and 36 cm) and a point detector 35 cm away from the center of the
sphere. Twenty batches of 1000 particles each were used in this example.}(hXV\ =20 cm sphere of polyethylene. Two tallies are used to
find the neutron dose rate (rem/hr) 35 cm from the center of the sphere
– a region tally (region between two concentric spheres with radii of 34
and 36 cm) and a point detector 35 cm away from the center of the
sphere. Twenty batches of 1000 particles each were used in this example.h jF`hhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j_hhubh;)}(hXzThe first depiction of the region tally dose rate response is shown in
:numref:`list8-1`. Since four of the tests involve curve fits to the table
values over the last half of the simulation, the table is split showing
each half of the simulation separately. The second depiction of the region
tally, showing all of the details for the last batch, is shown in
:numref:`list8-2`. These two tables show that this tally passed all the
statistical tests for the entire second half of the simulation. This
information, combined with the fact that this is a simple tally for a
well-posed problem, indicates that this tally is well converged.h](h/GThe first depiction of the region tally dose rate response is shown in
}(hGThe first depiction of the region tally dose rate response is shown in
h jh`hhh!NhNubj)}(h:numref:`list8-1`h]j
)}(hjs`h]h/list8-1}(hhh ju`ubah}(h]h](jstd
std-numrefeh]h]h]uhjh jq`ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]refdocj refdomainj`reftypenumrefrefexplicitrefwarnj*list8-1uhjh!h"hMh jh`ubh/X. Since four of the tests involve curve fits to the table
values over the last half of the simulation, the table is split showing
each half of the simulation separately. The second depiction of the region
tally, showing all of the details for the last batch, is shown in
}(hX. Since four of the tests involve curve fits to the table
values over the last half of the simulation, the table is split showing
each half of the simulation separately. The second depiction of the region
tally, showing all of the details for the last batch, is shown in
h jh`hhh!NhNubj)}(h:numref:`list8-2`h]j
)}(hj`h]h/list8-2}(hhh j`ubah}(h]h](jstd
std-numrefeh]h]h]uhjh j`ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]refdocj refdomainj`reftypenumrefrefexplicitrefwarnj*list8-2uhjh!h"hMh jh`ubh/X. These two tables show that this tally passed all the
statistical tests for the entire second half of the simulation. This
information, combined with the fact that this is a simple tally for a
well-posed problem, indicates that this tally is well converged.}(hX. These two tables show that this tally passed all the
statistical tests for the entire second half of the simulation. This
information, combined with the fact that this is a simple tally for a
well-posed problem, indicates that this tally is well converged.h jh`hhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j_hhubh container)}(hhh](j2)}(h(Tally values for a well-converged tally.h]h/(Tally values for a well-converged tally.}(hj`h j`ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj1h!h"hMh j`ubj)}(hX Tally Values as the Simulation Progressed
average standard relat rel FOM stats check
batch value deviation uncert VOV (/min) 1 2 3 4 5 6
------ ----------- ----------- ------- -------- -------- -----------
1 2.06269E+01 2.45012E+00 0.11878 1.45E-02 9.96E+02 - X
2 1.87353E+01 1.65492E+00 0.08833 8.16E-03 8.76E+02 - X
3 1.82317E+01 1.33026E+00 0.07296 5.63E-03 8.45E+02 - X
4 1.80905E+01 1.15401E+00 0.06379 4.27E-03 8.28E+02 - X
5 1.82780E+01 1.03792E+00 0.05679 3.40E-03 8.36E+02 - X
6 1.75679E+01 9.28759E-01 0.05287 2.97E-03 8.00E+02 - X
7 1.71843E+01 8.46577E-01 0.04926 2.60E-03 7.89E+02 X X
8 1.74775E+01 7.99275E-01 0.04573 2.23E-03 8.03E+02 X X
9 1.73520E+01 7.52502E-01 0.04337 2.00E-03 7.94E+02 X X
10 1.76020E+01 7.17178E-01 0.04074 1.76E-03 8.11E+02 X X X X X X
11 1.74628E+01 6.80834E-01 0.03899 1.62E-03 8.03E+02 X X X X X X
12 1.75161E+01 6.52464E-01 0.03725 1.48E-03 8.08E+02 X X X X X X
13 1.72561E+01 6.21777E-01 0.03603 1.39E-03 7.96E+02 X X X X X X
14 1.73196E+01 6.00329E-01 0.03466 1.29E-03 8.00E+02 X X X X X X
15 1.72025E+01 5.77747E-01 0.03359 1.21E-03 7.97E+02 X X X X X X
16 1.72019E+01 5.58956E-01 0.03249 1.14E-03 7.98E+02 X X X X X X
17 1.72998E+01 5.43721E-01 0.03143 1.06E-03 8.02E+02 X X X X X X
18 1.73534E+01 5.29351E-01 0.03050 9.99E-04 8.06E+02 X X X X X X
19 1.72752E+01 5.14264E-01 0.02977 9.51E-04 8.01E+02 X X X X X X
20 1.74155E+01 5.03061E-01 0.02889 8.95E-04 8.08E+02 X X X X X X
------ ----------- ----------- ------- -------- -------- -----------h]h/X Tally Values as the Simulation Progressed
average standard relat rel FOM stats check
batch value deviation uncert VOV (/min) 1 2 3 4 5 6
------ ----------- ----------- ------- -------- -------- -----------
1 2.06269E+01 2.45012E+00 0.11878 1.45E-02 9.96E+02 - X
2 1.87353E+01 1.65492E+00 0.08833 8.16E-03 8.76E+02 - X
3 1.82317E+01 1.33026E+00 0.07296 5.63E-03 8.45E+02 - X
4 1.80905E+01 1.15401E+00 0.06379 4.27E-03 8.28E+02 - X
5 1.82780E+01 1.03792E+00 0.05679 3.40E-03 8.36E+02 - X
6 1.75679E+01 9.28759E-01 0.05287 2.97E-03 8.00E+02 - X
7 1.71843E+01 8.46577E-01 0.04926 2.60E-03 7.89E+02 X X
8 1.74775E+01 7.99275E-01 0.04573 2.23E-03 8.03E+02 X X
9 1.73520E+01 7.52502E-01 0.04337 2.00E-03 7.94E+02 X X
10 1.76020E+01 7.17178E-01 0.04074 1.76E-03 8.11E+02 X X X X X X
11 1.74628E+01 6.80834E-01 0.03899 1.62E-03 8.03E+02 X X X X X X
12 1.75161E+01 6.52464E-01 0.03725 1.48E-03 8.08E+02 X X X X X X
13 1.72561E+01 6.21777E-01 0.03603 1.39E-03 7.96E+02 X X X X X X
14 1.73196E+01 6.00329E-01 0.03466 1.29E-03 8.00E+02 X X X X X X
15 1.72025E+01 5.77747E-01 0.03359 1.21E-03 7.97E+02 X X X X X X
16 1.72019E+01 5.58956E-01 0.03249 1.14E-03 7.98E+02 X X X X X X
17 1.72998E+01 5.43721E-01 0.03143 1.06E-03 8.02E+02 X X X X X X
18 1.73534E+01 5.29351E-01 0.03050 9.99E-04 8.06E+02 X X X X X X
19 1.72752E+01 5.14264E-01 0.02977 9.51E-04 8.01E+02 X X X X X X
20 1.74155E+01 5.03061E-01 0.02889 8.95E-04 8.08E+02 X X X X X X
------ ----------- ----------- ------- -------- -------- -----------}(hhh j`ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjforcejscalehighlight_args}uhjh!h"hMh j`ubeh}(h]list8-1ah]literal-block-wrapperah]list8-1ah]h]
literal_blockuhj`h j_hhh!hhNubj`)}(hhh](j2)}(h'Final check for a well-converged tally.h]h/'Final check for a well-converged tally.}(hj`h j`ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj1h!h"hMh j`ubj)}(hX Final Statistical Check (fits are over the last half of the simulation)
quantity check goal actual pass
----------------------- ----------------------- ------- -------- ----
1 mean rel slope of linear fit = 0.00 -0.0118 yes
2 standard deviation exponent of power fit = -0.50 -0.5092 yes
3 relative uncertainty final value < 0.05 0.0289 yes
4 relative VOV exponent of power fit = -1.00 -0.9833 yes
5 relative VOV final value < 0.10 0.0009 yes
6 figure-of-merit (FOM) rel slope of linear fit = 0.00 0.0075 yes
----------------------- ----------------------- ------- -------- ----h]h/X Final Statistical Check (fits are over the last half of the simulation)
quantity check goal actual pass
----------------------- ----------------------- ------- -------- ----
1 mean rel slope of linear fit = 0.00 -0.0118 yes
2 standard deviation exponent of power fit = -0.50 -0.5092 yes
3 relative uncertainty final value < 0.05 0.0289 yes
4 relative VOV exponent of power fit = -1.00 -0.9833 yes
5 relative VOV final value < 0.10 0.0009 yes
6 figure-of-merit (FOM) rel slope of linear fit = 0.00 0.0075 yes
----------------------- ----------------------- ------- -------- ----}(hhh jaubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjj`jscalej`}uhjh!h"hMh j`ubeh}(h]list8-2ah]j`ah]list8-2ah]h]
literal_blockuhj`h j_hhh!hhNubh;)}(hX Since the point detector is close compared to the size of the sphere, it
should converge slower than the region tally. Contributions coming from
different parts of the sphere have large differences in attenuation
which will cause large fluctuations in the weights arriving at the point
detector. The two statistical tables are shown in :numref:`list8-3` and
:numref:`list8-4`. This tally is not yet converged enough to pass most of
the statistical tests. With thirty times the simulation time, this point
detector tally will pass all six tests.h](h/XPSince the point detector is close compared to the size of the sphere, it
should converge slower than the region tally. Contributions coming from
different parts of the sphere have large differences in attenuation
which will cause large fluctuations in the weights arriving at the point
detector. The two statistical tables are shown in }(hXPSince the point detector is close compared to the size of the sphere, it
should converge slower than the region tally. Contributions coming from
different parts of the sphere have large differences in attenuation
which will cause large fluctuations in the weights arriving at the point
detector. The two statistical tables are shown in h jahhh!NhNubj)}(h:numref:`list8-3`h]j
)}(hj%ah]h/list8-3}(hhh j'aubah}(h]h](jstd
std-numrefeh]h]h]uhjh j#aubah}(h]h]h]h]h]refdocj refdomainj1areftypenumrefrefexplicitrefwarnj*list8-3uhjh!h"hM h jaubh/ and
}(h and
h jahhh!NhNubj)}(h:numref:`list8-4`h]j
)}(hjJah]h/list8-4}(hhh jLaubah}(h]h](jstd
std-numrefeh]h]h]uhjh jHaubah}(h]h]h]h]h]refdocj refdomainjVareftypenumrefrefexplicitrefwarnj*list8-4uhjh!h"hM h jaubh/. This tally is not yet converged enough to pass most of
the statistical tests. With thirty times the simulation time, this point
detector tally will pass all six tests.}(h. This tally is not yet converged enough to pass most of
the statistical tests. With thirty times the simulation time, this point
detector tally will pass all six tests.h jahhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM h j_hhubh;)}(hX:numref:`fig8-14` shows the behavior of both the region tally
(well-converged) and the point detector tally (not-yet-converged) for
this example problem as a function of the simulation run time (shown as
the twenty batches of particles). The batch values are shown as blue
points and the fits for the last half of the simulation are shown as
solid black lines. The average value for a tally should be constant, so
test 1 looks at the slope of a linear fit over the tally average over
the last half of the simulation. The uncertainty of the tally should
decrease with the square root of the total number of particles
(:math:`\frac{1}{\sqrt{N}}`), so test 3 computes the slope of an
exponential fit which should be close to -0.5 (green dotted line). The
variance-of-the-variance (VOV) should decrease
with\ :math:`\frac{1}{N}`, so test 4 computes the slope of an
exponential fit which should be close to -1.0. The tally figure-of-merit
(FOM) should be constant. Test 6 computes the slope of the FOM values
which should be zero.h](j)}(h:numref:`fig8-14`h]j
)}(hjyah]h/fig8-14}(hhh j{aubah}(h]h](jstd
std-numrefeh]h]h]uhjh jwaubah}(h]h]h]h]h]refdocj refdomainjareftypenumrefrefexplicitrefwarnj*fig8-14uhjh!h"hMh jsaubh/XX shows the behavior of both the region tally
(well-converged) and the point detector tally (not-yet-converged) for
this example problem as a function of the simulation run time (shown as
the twenty batches of particles). The batch values are shown as blue
points and the fits for the last half of the simulation are shown as
solid black lines. The average value for a tally should be constant, so
test 1 looks at the slope of a linear fit over the tally average over
the last half of the simulation. The uncertainty of the tally should
decrease with the square root of the total number of particles
(}(hXX shows the behavior of both the region tally
(well-converged) and the point detector tally (not-yet-converged) for
this example problem as a function of the simulation run time (shown as
the twenty batches of particles). The batch values are shown as blue
points and the fits for the last half of the simulation are shown as
solid black lines. The average value for a tally should be constant, so
test 1 looks at the slope of a linear fit over the tally average over
the last half of the simulation. The uncertainty of the tally should
decrease with the square root of the total number of particles
(h jsahhh!NhNubh)}(h:math:`\frac{1}{\sqrt{N}}`h]h/\frac{1}{\sqrt{N}}}(hhh jaubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jsaubh/), so test 3 computes the slope of an
exponential fit which should be close to -0.5 (green dotted line). The
variance-of-the-variance (VOV) should decrease
with }(h), so test 3 computes the slope of an
exponential fit which should be close to -0.5 (green dotted line). The
variance-of-the-variance (VOV) should decrease
with\ h jsahhh!NhNubh)}(h:math:`\frac{1}{N}`h]h/\frac{1}{N}}(hhh jaubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh jsaubh/, so test 4 computes the slope of an
exponential fit which should be close to -1.0. The tally figure-of-merit
(FOM) should be constant. Test 6 computes the slope of the FOM values
which should be zero.}(h, so test 4 computes the slope of an
exponential fit which should be close to -1.0. The tally figure-of-merit
(FOM) should be constant. Test 6 computes the slope of the FOM values
which should be zero.h jsahhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j_hhubj`)}(hhh](j2)}(h+Tally values for a not-yet-converged tally.h]h/+Tally values for a not-yet-converged tally.}(hjah jaubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj1h!h"hM#h jaubj)}(hX Tally Values as the Simulation Progressed
average standard relat rel FOM stats check
batch value deviation uncert VOV (/min) 1 2 3 4 5 6
------ ----------- ----------- ------- -------- -------- -----------
1 1.45258E+01 3.00915E+00 0.20716 1.60E-01 3.27E+02 - -
2 1.83822E+01 4.47657E+00 0.24353 5.27E-01 1.15E+02 - -
3 1.84192E+01 3.44084E+00 0.18681 3.20E-01 1.29E+02 - -
4 1.87897E+01 2.80685E+00 0.14938 2.33E-01 1.51E+02 - -
5 1.78133E+01 2.31117E+00 0.12974 2.09E-01 1.60E+02 - -
6 1.75190E+01 2.02252E+00 0.11545 1.74E-01 1.68E+02 - -
7 1.79523E+01 2.18108E+00 0.12149 1.78E-01 1.30E+02 - -
8 1.75624E+01 1.95272E+00 0.11119 1.63E-01 1.36E+02 - -
9 1.67648E+01 1.75017E+00 0.10440 1.58E-01 1.37E+02 - -
10 1.70234E+01 1.66732E+00 0.09794 1.30E-01 1.40E+02 X X - - - -
11 1.70104E+01 1.55192E+00 0.09123 1.18E-01 1.47E+02 - - - X - -
12 1.71598E+01 1.48432E+00 0.08650 1.03E-01 1.50E+02 X - - X - -
13 1.74796E+01 1.42808E+00 0.08170 8.85E-02 1.55E+02 X - - - X -
14 1.68710E+01 1.33186E+00 0.07894 8.70E-02 1.54E+02 X - - - X -
15 1.65807E+01 1.25707E+00 0.07582 8.34E-02 1.56E+02 X - - - X -
16 1.65731E+01 1.20836E+00 0.07291 7.61E-02 1.59E+02 X - - X X -
17 1.62390E+01 1.14550E+00 0.07054 7.40E-02 1.59E+02 X - - X X -
18 1.70002E+01 1.17106E+00 0.06889 5.75E-02 1.58E+02 X - - X X -
19 1.70863E+01 1.14126E+00 0.06679 5.20E-02 1.59E+02 X - - - X -
20 1.68215E+01 1.09329E+00 0.06499 5.04E-02 1.60E+02 X - - - X -
------ ----------- ----------- ------- -------- -------- -----------h]h/X Tally Values as the Simulation Progressed
average standard relat rel FOM stats check
batch value deviation uncert VOV (/min) 1 2 3 4 5 6
------ ----------- ----------- ------- -------- -------- -----------
1 1.45258E+01 3.00915E+00 0.20716 1.60E-01 3.27E+02 - -
2 1.83822E+01 4.47657E+00 0.24353 5.27E-01 1.15E+02 - -
3 1.84192E+01 3.44084E+00 0.18681 3.20E-01 1.29E+02 - -
4 1.87897E+01 2.80685E+00 0.14938 2.33E-01 1.51E+02 - -
5 1.78133E+01 2.31117E+00 0.12974 2.09E-01 1.60E+02 - -
6 1.75190E+01 2.02252E+00 0.11545 1.74E-01 1.68E+02 - -
7 1.79523E+01 2.18108E+00 0.12149 1.78E-01 1.30E+02 - -
8 1.75624E+01 1.95272E+00 0.11119 1.63E-01 1.36E+02 - -
9 1.67648E+01 1.75017E+00 0.10440 1.58E-01 1.37E+02 - -
10 1.70234E+01 1.66732E+00 0.09794 1.30E-01 1.40E+02 X X - - - -
11 1.70104E+01 1.55192E+00 0.09123 1.18E-01 1.47E+02 - - - X - -
12 1.71598E+01 1.48432E+00 0.08650 1.03E-01 1.50E+02 X - - X - -
13 1.74796E+01 1.42808E+00 0.08170 8.85E-02 1.55E+02 X - - - X -
14 1.68710E+01 1.33186E+00 0.07894 8.70E-02 1.54E+02 X - - - X -
15 1.65807E+01 1.25707E+00 0.07582 8.34E-02 1.56E+02 X - - - X -
16 1.65731E+01 1.20836E+00 0.07291 7.61E-02 1.59E+02 X - - X X -
17 1.62390E+01 1.14550E+00 0.07054 7.40E-02 1.59E+02 X - - X X -
18 1.70002E+01 1.17106E+00 0.06889 5.75E-02 1.58E+02 X - - X X -
19 1.70863E+01 1.14126E+00 0.06679 5.20E-02 1.59E+02 X - - - X -
20 1.68215E+01 1.09329E+00 0.06499 5.04E-02 1.60E+02 X - - - X -
------ ----------- ----------- ------- -------- -------- -----------}(hhh jaubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjj`jscalej`}uhjh!h"hM#h jaubeh}(h]list8-3ah]j`ah]list8-3ah]h]
literal_blockuhj`h j_hhh!hhNubj`)}(hhh](j2)}(h*Final check for a not-yet-converged tally.h]h/*Final check for a not-yet-converged tally.}(hjah jaubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj1h!h"hMCh jaubj)}(hX
Final Statistical Check (fits are over the last half of the simulation)
quantity check goal actual pass
----------------------- ----------------------- ------- -------- ----
1 mean rel slope of linear fit = 0.00 -0.0468 yes
2 standard deviation exponent of power fit = -0.50 -0.6006 no
3 relative uncertainty final value < 0.05 0.0650 no
4 relative VOV exponent of power fit = -1.00 -1.3823 no
5 relative VOV final value < 0.10 0.0504 yes
6 figure-of-merit (FOM) rel slope of linear fit = 0.00 0.1667 no
----------------------- ----------------------- ------- -------- ----h]h/X
Final Statistical Check (fits are over the last half of the simulation)
quantity check goal actual pass
----------------------- ----------------------- ------- -------- ----
1 mean rel slope of linear fit = 0.00 -0.0468 yes
2 standard deviation exponent of power fit = -0.50 -0.6006 no
3 relative uncertainty final value < 0.05 0.0650 no
4 relative VOV exponent of power fit = -1.00 -1.3823 no
5 relative VOV final value < 0.10 0.0504 yes
6 figure-of-merit (FOM) rel slope of linear fit = 0.00 0.1667 no
----------------------- ----------------------- ------- -------- ----}(hhh jbubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjj`jscalej`}uhjh!h"hMCh jaubeh}(h]list8-4ah]j`ah]list8-4ah]h]
literal_blockuhj`h j_hhh!hhNubh)}(h.. _fig8-14:h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hfig8-14uhh
hMSh j_hhh!h"ubj)}(hhh](j)}(hz.. figure:: figs/Monaco/8-14.png
:align: center
Behavior of two tallies as a function of number of particle batches.
h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]urifigs/Monaco/8-14.pngj.}j0j5bsuhjh j'bh!h"hMWubj2)}(hDBehavior of two tallies as a function of number of particle batches.h]h/DBehavior of two tallies as a function of number of particle batches.}(hj9bh j7bubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj1h!h"hMWh j'bubeh}(h](id38j&beh]h]fig8-14ah]h]jicenteruhjhMWh j_hhh!h"j}jJbjbsj}j&bjbsubh;)}(hX Note that the slope of the VOV is found by fitting an exponential curve
through the calculated VOV values and is very sensitive to outliers.
Users need to apply their own judgment to whether or not the VOV test
implemented in Monaco is too strict (failing when the tally seems
converged).h]h/X Note that the slope of the VOV is found by fitting an exponential curve
through the calculated VOV values and is very sensitive to outliers.
Users need to apply their own judgment to whether or not the VOV test
implemented in Monaco is too strict (failing when the tally seems
converged).}(hjRbh jPbhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMYh j_hhubh;)}(hXMesh tallies produce similar tables - detailed statistical information
is provided in separate files, “\ *outputName*.mt\ *id*.flux.txt” and
“\ *outputName*.mt\ *id*.resp\ *xx*.txt”, for the total flux and
responses. First, the statistical values related to the mean relative
variance are listed as a function of batch number. With each batch, the
statistical tests are listed by number with one of the following: “X”
for passing, “-” for failing or a blank if the test could not be
performed yet. The second table lists the details of the final
statistical checks for the last batch completed. This table lists the
value for each of the four tests as well as what the goal is for that
test.h](h/kMesh tallies produce similar tables - detailed statistical information
is provided in separate files, “ }(hkMesh tallies produce similar tables - detailed statistical information
is provided in separate files, “\ h j^bhhh!NhNubhA)}(h*outputName*h]h/
outputName}(hhh jgbubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j^bubh/.mt }(h.mt\ h j^bhhh!NhNubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh jzbubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j^bubh/.flux.txt” and
“ }(h.flux.txt” and
“\ h j^bhhh!NhNubhA)}(h*outputName*h]h/
outputName}(hhh jbubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j^bubh/.mt }(hjybh j^bubhA)}(h*id*h]h/id}(hhh jbubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j^bubh/.resp }(h.resp\ h j^bhhh!NhNubhA)}(h*xx*h]h/xx}(hhh jbubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j^bubh/X
.txt”, for the total flux and
responses. First, the statistical values related to the mean relative
variance are listed as a function of batch number. With each batch, the
statistical tests are listed by number with one of the following: “X”
for passing, “-” for failing or a blank if the test could not be
performed yet. The second table lists the details of the final
statistical checks for the last batch completed. This table lists the
value for each of the four tests as well as what the goal is for that
test.}(hX
.txt”, for the total flux and
responses. First, the statistical values related to the mean relative
variance are listed as a function of batch number. With each batch, the
statistical tests are listed by number with one of the following: “X”
for passing, “-” for failing or a blank if the test could not be
performed yet. The second table lists the details of the final
statistical checks for the last batch completed. This table lists the
value for each of the four tests as well as what the goal is for that
test.h j^bhhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM_h j_hhubeh}(h]7statistical-checks-on-point-detector-and-region-talliesah]h]7statistical checks on point detector and region talliesah]h]uhh#h joQhhh!h"hMubeh}(h]
monaco-outputah]h]
monaco outputah]h]uhh#h h%hhh!h"hM
ubh$)}(hhh](h))}(hExample Problemsh]h/Example Problems}(hjbh jbhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h jbhhh!h"hMlubh$)}(hhh](h))}(h+Neutron transmission through an iron sphereh]h/+Neutron transmission through an iron sphere}(hjbh jbhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h jbhhh!h"hMoubh;)}(hXIn the early 1990s, several experiments were performed in order to
benchmark ENDF/B-VI cross-section data for iron :cite:`sajo_comparison_1993` This example
problem will use Monaco to simulate one of these experiments:
transmission of :sup:`252`\ Cf neutrons through a sphere of iron. The
Monaco calculations will be compared to two sets of measurements, one by
the Czechoslovakian National Research Institute (NRI) and the other by
the Skoda Company.h](h/sIn the early 1990s, several experiments were performed in order to
benchmark ENDF/B-VI cross-section data for iron }(hsIn the early 1990s, several experiments were performed in order to
benchmark ENDF/B-VI cross-section data for iron h jbhhh!NhNubj)}(hsajo_comparison_1993h]j)}(hjch]h/[sajo_comparison_1993]}(hhh j
cubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jcubah}(h]id9ah]jah]h]h] refdomainjreftypej reftargetjcrefwarnsupport_smartquotesuhjh!h"hMqh jbhhubh/\ This example
problem will use Monaco to simulate one of these experiments:
transmission of }(h\ This example
problem will use Monaco to simulate one of these experiments:
transmission of h jbhhh!NhNubj")}(h
:sup:`252`h]h/252}(hhh j(cubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj"h jbubh/ Cf neutrons through a sphere of iron. The
Monaco calculations will be compared to two sets of measurements, one by
the Czechoslovakian National Research Institute (NRI) and the other by
the Skoda Company.}(h\ Cf neutrons through a sphere of iron. The
Monaco calculations will be compared to two sets of measurements, one by
the Czechoslovakian National Research Institute (NRI) and the other by
the Skoda Company.h jbhhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMqh jbhhubh;)}(hXThe Monaco model for this sample problem
(samples\input\monaco.ironSphere.inp) will be quite simple—just a point
source and a spherical shell of iron. Three different tallies are used
which should all give the same result: a region tally (for a thin
spherical shell at radius=100cm); a point detector tally at
(x,y,z)=(100,0,0); and a coarse mesh tally, with one cell enclosing the
point (x,y,z)=(100,0,0).h]h/XThe Monaco model for this sample problem
(samplesinputmonaco.ironSphere.inp) will be quite simple—just a point
source and a spherical shell of iron. Three different tallies are used
which should all give the same result: a region tally (for a thin
spherical shell at radius=100cm); a point detector tally at
(x,y,z)=(100,0,0); and a coarse mesh tally, with one cell enclosing the
point (x,y,z)=(100,0,0).}(hXThe Monaco model for this sample problem
(samples\input\monaco.ironSphere.inp) will be quite simple—just a point
source and a spherical shell of iron. Three different tallies are used
which should all give the same result: a region tally (for a thin
spherical shell at radius=100cm); a point detector tally at
(x,y,z)=(100,0,0); and a coarse mesh tally, with one cell enclosing the
point (x,y,z)=(100,0,0).h jAchhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMyh jbhhubh$)}(hhh](h))}(hInputh]h/Input}(hjUch jSchhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h jPchhh!h"hMubh;)}(hFirst, the cross sections need to be computed. Here, csas-mg is used and the “activities” material is included to make sure the flux-to-dose conversion factors are added to the working library.h]h/First, the cross sections need to be computed. Here, csas-mg is used and the “activities” material is included to make sure the flux-to-dose conversion factors are added to the working library.}(hjcch jachhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jPchhubj)}(hXR=csas-mg
Materials for Leakage spectrum of Cf-252 through an iron sphere
v7-27n19g
read composition
wtptSphere 3 8.0 7 26054 5.767 26056 91.618 26057 2.187
26058 0.298 6000 0.07 15000 0.03
16000 0.03
1.0 293.0 end
activities 99 1.0 293.0 end
end composition
endh]h/XR=csas-mg
Materials for Leakage spectrum of Cf-252 through an iron sphere
v7-27n19g
read composition
wtptSphere 3 8.0 7 26054 5.767 26056 91.618 26057 2.187
26058 0.298 6000 0.07 15000 0.03
16000 0.03
1.0 293.0 end
activities 99 1.0 293.0 end
end composition
end}(hhh jocubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjuhjh!h"hMh jPchhubh;)}(hIThe Monaco input file starts with module name (“monaco”) and a title.h]h/IThe Monaco input file starts with module name (“monaco”) and a title.}(hjch j}chhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jPchhubj)}(h9=monaco
Leakage spectrum of Cf-252 through an iron sphereh]h/9=monaco
Leakage spectrum of Cf-252 through an iron sphere}(hhh jcubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjuhjh!h"hMh jPchhubh;)}(hQThe mixing table information can be found in the output of the above csas-mg run.h]h/QThe mixing table information can be found in the output of the above csas-mg run.}(hjch jchhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jPchhubj)}(hXread crossSections
ampxFileUnit=4
mixture 3
element 26054 5.150920E-03
element 26056 7.891181E-02
element 26057 1.850588E-03
element 26058 2.478141E-04
element 6000 2.807736E-04
element 15031 4.666202E-05
element 16032 4.283109E-05
element 16033 3.380690E-07
element 16034 1.897694E-06
element 16036 9.015172E-09
end mixture
end crossSectionsh]h/Xread crossSections
ampxFileUnit=4
mixture 3
element 26054 5.150920E-03
element 26056 7.891181E-02
element 26057 1.850588E-03
element 26058 2.478141E-04
element 6000 2.807736E-04
element 15031 4.666202E-05
element 16032 4.283109E-05
element 16033 3.380690E-07
element 16034 1.897694E-06
element 16036 9.015172E-09
end mixture
end crossSections}(hhh jcubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjuhjh!h"hMh jPchhubh;)}(hXTThe SGGP geometry consists of several nested spheres. The regions (in
order) are a void for the :sup:`252`\ Cf source, the iron shield, a void
out to the detector, a thin shell about 100 cm, and then a void to the
problem boundary. The only volume that needs to be supplied is the
fourth region, since that is where the flux tally will be.h](h/`The SGGP geometry consists of several nested spheres. The regions (in
order) are a void for the }(h`The SGGP geometry consists of several nested spheres. The regions (in
order) are a void for the h jchhh!NhNubj")}(h
:sup:`252`h]h/252}(hhh jcubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj"h jcubh/ Cf source, the iron shield, a void
out to the detector, a thin shell about 100 cm, and then a void to the
problem boundary. The only volume that needs to be supplied is the
fourth region, since that is where the flux tally will be.}(h\ Cf source, the iron shield, a void
out to the detector, a thin shell about 100 cm, and then a void to the
problem boundary. The only volume that needs to be supplied is the
fourth region, since that is where the flux tally will be.h jchhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jPchhubj)}(hXread geometry
global unit 1
sphere 10 1.25
sphere 11 25.0
sphere 12 99.5
sphere 13 100.5
sphere 99 200.0
media 0 1 10 vol=8.181230869
media 3 1 11 -10 vol=65441.66572
media 0 1 12 -11 vol=4060822.14
media 0 1 13 -12 vol=125664.7533
media 0 1 99 -13 vol=29258384.9
boundary 99
end geometryh]h/Xread geometry
global unit 1
sphere 10 1.25
sphere 11 25.0
sphere 12 99.5
sphere 13 100.5
sphere 99 200.0
media 0 1 10 vol=8.181230869
media 3 1 11 -10 vol=65441.66572
media 0 1 12 -11 vol=4060822.14
media 0 1 13 -12 vol=125664.7533
media 0 1 99 -13 vol=29258384.9
boundary 99
end geometry}(hhh jcubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjuhjh!h"hMh jPchhubh;)}(hFor the different tallies, responses, locations, and grid geometry
objects need to be defined. For the source, one distribution needs to be
defined.h]h/For the different tallies, responses, locations, and grid geometry
objects need to be defined. For the source, one distribution needs to be
defined.}(hjch jchhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jPchhubj)}(hXread definitions
response 1
title="ANSI standard (1977) neutron flux-to-dose-rate factors (rem/h)/(neutrons/cm2/s)"
specialDose=9029
end response
location 1
title="true detector location"
position 100.0 0.0 0.0
end location
gridGeometry 1
title="simple grid"
xplanes -25 -15 -5 5 15 25 35 55 75 95 105 end
yLinear 5 -25 25
zLinear 5 -25 25
end gridGeometry
distribution 1
title="Cf-252 neutrons, Watt spectrum a=1.025 MeV and b=2.926/MeV"
special="wattSpectrum"
parameters 1.025 2.926 end
end distribution
end definitionsh]h/Xread definitions
response 1
title="ANSI standard (1977) neutron flux-to-dose-rate factors (rem/h)/(neutrons/cm2/s)"
specialDose=9029
end response
location 1
title="true detector location"
position 100.0 0.0 0.0
end location
gridGeometry 1
title="simple grid"
xplanes -25 -15 -5 5 15 25 35 55 75 95 105 end
yLinear 5 -25 25
zLinear 5 -25 25
end gridGeometry
distribution 1
title="Cf-252 neutrons, Watt spectrum a=1.025 MeV and b=2.926/MeV"
special="wattSpectrum"
parameters 1.025 2.926 end
end distribution
end definitions}(hhh jcubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjuhjh!h"hMh jPchhubh;)}(hX>The :sup:`252`\ Cf source can be modeled using the Watt spectrum with
*a*\ =1.025 MeV and *b*\ =2.926/MeV, which was used for distribution 1.
The strength is set so that the total flux at the detector (at
*r*\ =100 cm) without the shield would be 1 n/cm\ :sup:`2`/s. So,
strength = 4π(100)\ :sup:`2` = 125664 n/s.h](h/The }(hThe h jdhhh!NhNubj")}(h
:sup:`252`h]h/252}(hhh j
dubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj"h jdubh/8 Cf source can be modeled using the Watt spectrum with
}(h8\ Cf source can be modeled using the Watt spectrum with
h jdhhh!NhNubhA)}(h*a*h]h/a}(hhh jdubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jdubh/ =1.025 MeV and }(h\ =1.025 MeV and h jdhhh!NhNubhA)}(h*b*h]h/b}(hhh j0dubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jdubh/p =2.926/MeV, which was used for distribution 1.
The strength is set so that the total flux at the detector (at
}(hp\ =2.926/MeV, which was used for distribution 1.
The strength is set so that the total flux at the detector (at
h jdhhh!NhNubhA)}(h*r*h]h/r}(hhh jCdubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jdubh/1 =100 cm) without the shield would be 1 n/cm }(h1\ =100 cm) without the shield would be 1 n/cm\ h jdhhh!NhNubj")}(h:sup:`2`h]h/2}(hhh jVdubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj"h jdubh//s. So,
strength = 4π(100) }(h/s. So,
strength = 4π(100)\ h jdhhh!NhNubj")}(h:sup:`2`h]h/2}(hhh jidubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj"h jdubh/ = 125664 n/s.}(h = 125664 n/s.h jdhhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jPchhubj)}(hread sources
src 1
title="Cf-252 neutrons, Watt Spectra using a=1.025 MeV and b=2.926/MeV"
neutron strength=125663.70614
sphere 0.1
eDistributionID=1
end src
end sourcesh]h/read sources
src 1
title="Cf-252 neutrons, Watt Spectra using a=1.025 MeV and b=2.926/MeV"
neutron strength=125663.70614
sphere 0.1
eDistributionID=1
end src
end sources}(hhh jdubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjuhjh!h"hMh jPchhubh;)}(hThree tallies will be defined: a region tally over the fourth region of
unit 1 (since this is a symmetric problem); a mesh tally using a coarse
mesh over the entire problem; and a point detector tally at the true
detector location.h]h/Three tallies will be defined: a region tally over the fourth region of
unit 1 (since this is a symmetric problem); a mesh tally using a coarse
mesh over the entire problem; and a point detector tally at the true
detector location.}(hjdh jdhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jPchhubj)}(hXread tallies
regionTally 4
title="example region tally"
neutron
unit=1 region=4
responseID=1
end regionTally
meshTally 1
title="example mesh tally"
neutron
gridGeometryID=1
responseID=1
end meshTally
pointDetector 2
title="example point detector"
neutron
locationID=1
responseID=1
end pointDetector
end talliesh]h/Xread tallies
regionTally 4
title="example region tally"
neutron
unit=1 region=4
responseID=1
end regionTally
meshTally 1
title="example mesh tally"
neutron
gridGeometryID=1
responseID=1
end meshTally
pointDetector 2
title="example point detector"
neutron
locationID=1
responseID=1
end pointDetector
end tallies}(hhh jdubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjuhjh!h"hMh jPchhubh;)}(hX;Monte Carlo parameters include the starting random number seed, the
number of particles per batch, and the number of batches to simulate.
Since we are only interested in simulating neutrons, use the keywords
“neutrons” and “noPhotons” to transport neutrons and not photons. To
prevent the production of fission neutrons and secondary gamma rays from
neutron interactions, the keywords “fissionMult=0” and “secondaryMult=0”
are used. In order to prevent a long run time, a maximum allowable run
time using the “maxMinutes=” keyword could also be used.h]h/X;Monte Carlo parameters include the starting random number seed, the
number of particles per batch, and the number of batches to simulate.
Since we are only interested in simulating neutrons, use the keywords
“neutrons” and “noPhotons” to transport neutrons and not photons. To
prevent the production of fission neutrons and secondary gamma rays from
neutron interactions, the keywords “fissionMult=0” and “secondaryMult=0”
are used. In order to prevent a long run time, a maximum allowable run
time using the “maxMinutes=” keyword could also be used.}(hjdh jdhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM
h jPchhubj)}(hread parameters
randomSeed=8655745262010033
perBatch=262000 batches=10
neutrons noPhotons
fissionMult=0 secondaryMult=0
end parametersh]h/read parameters
randomSeed=8655745262010033
perBatch=262000 batches=10
neutrons noPhotons
fissionMult=0 secondaryMult=0
end parameters}(hhh jdubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjuhjh!h"hM
h jPchhubh;)}(hX1Without any biasing parameters, Monaco will set the target weights of
every energy group in every region to 1 and the values for weight lower
bounds (Russian roulette) will be 1/3. Since “noPhotons” was listed in
the parameters block, photons should not be generated. So, no biasing
block is required.h]h/X1Without any biasing parameters, Monaco will set the target weights of
every energy group in every region to 1 and the values for weight lower
bounds (Russian roulette) will be 1/3. Since “noPhotons” was listed in
the parameters block, photons should not be generated. So, no biasing
block is required.}(hjdh jdhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM$
h jPchhubh;)}(hX=If desired, a biasing block could be added to change the size of the
weight windows (default is 5, giving lower weights of 1/3 and upper
weights of 5/3). By using the default target weights of 1.0 and defining
the windowRatio as 199, the lower weights are all set to 0.01 and the
upper weights for splitting are 1.99.h]h/X=If desired, a biasing block could be added to change the size of the
weight windows (default is 5, giving lower weights of 1/3 and upper
weights of 5/3). By using the default target weights of 1.0 and defining
the windowRatio as 199, the lower weights are all set to 0.01 and the
upper weights for splitting are 1.99.}(hjdh jdhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM*
h jPchhubj)}(h.read biasing
windowRatio=199.0
end biasingh]h/.read biasing
windowRatio=199.0
end biasing}(hhh jdubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjuhjh!h"hM2
h jPchhubh;)}(hor the target weights and lower weights could be listed for every group,
every region or for every group/region. For all regions having the same
targets and lower bounds, the following could be used:h]h/or the target weights and lower weights could be listed for every group,
every region or for every group/region. For all regions having the same
targets and lower bounds, the following could be used:}(hjdh jdhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM6
h jPchhubj)}(hdread biasing
targetWeights 27r1.00 19r0.0 end
lowerWeights 27r0.01 19r0.0 end
end biasingh]h/dread biasing
targetWeights 27r1.00 19r0.0 end
lowerWeights 27r0.01 19r0.0 end
end biasing}(hhh jeubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjuhjh!h"hM<
h jPchhubh;)}(hIf this last case were used, the “noPhotons” keyword would not be
required since the target weights for all photon groups were explicitly
set to 0.h]h/If this last case were used, the “noPhotons” keyword would not be
required since the target weights for all photon groups were explicitly
set to 0.}(hjeh jehhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMA
h jPchhubh;)}(h,Finally, the Monaco input file is ended withh]h/,Finally, the Monaco input file is ended with}(hjeh jehhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hME
h jPchhubj)}(hend data
endh]h/end data
end}(hhh j*eubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjuhjh!h"hMI
h jPchhubh;)}(hfThe complete input file ``monaco.ironSphere.inp`` is located in the SCALE
``samples\input`` directory.h](h/The complete input file }(hThe complete input file h j8ehhh!NhNubj
)}(h``monaco.ironSphere.inp``h]h/monaco.ironSphere.inp}(hhh jAeubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j8eubh/ is located in the SCALE
}(h is located in the SCALE
h j8ehhh!NhNubj
)}(h``samples\input``h]h/
samples\input}(hhh jTeubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j8eubh/ directory.}(h directory.h j8ehhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hML
h jPchhubeh}(h]inputah]h]h]inputah]uhh#h jbhhh!h"hMjKubh$)}(hhh](h))}(hOutputh]h/Output}(hjzeh jxehhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h juehhh!h"hMP
ubh;)}(hXeWhen Monaco finishes, there are several output files produced. First,
the main output file lists summaries for each of the region tallies and
point detector tallies. With each mesh tally, a \*.3dmap file is
produced which can be viewed with the Mesh File Viewer capabilities of
Fulcrum. Region tallies and point detectors produce text files listing
group-by-group results for fluxes and any optional responses. Both of
these tallies also produce \*.chart files which contain information
about how the simulation progresses with each batch. These can be viewed
with the Interactive Plotter capabilities of Fulcrum.h]h/XeWhen Monaco finishes, there are several output files produced. First,
the main output file lists summaries for each of the region tallies and
point detector tallies. With each mesh tally, a *.3dmap file is
produced which can be viewed with the Mesh File Viewer capabilities of
Fulcrum. Region tallies and point detectors produce text files listing
group-by-group results for fluxes and any optional responses. Both of
these tallies also produce *.chart files which contain information
about how the simulation progresses with each batch. These can be viewed
with the Interactive Plotter capabilities of Fulcrum.}(hXeWhen Monaco finishes, there are several output files produced. First,
the main output file lists summaries for each of the region tallies and
point detector tallies. With each mesh tally, a \*.3dmap file is
produced which can be viewed with the Mesh File Viewer capabilities of
Fulcrum. Region tallies and point detectors produce text files listing
group-by-group results for fluxes and any optional responses. Both of
these tallies also produce \*.chart files which contain information
about how the simulation progresses with each batch. These can be viewed
with the Interactive Plotter capabilities of Fulcrum.h jehhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMR
h juehhubh;)}(hJFrom the main output file, the final tally results summary is shown
below:h]h/JFrom the main output file, the final tally results summary is shown
below:}(hjeh jehhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM\
h juehhubj)}(hXFinal Tally Results Summary
============================
Neutron Point Detector 2. example point detector
average standard relat FOM stat checks
tally/quantity value deviation uncert (/min) 1 2 3 4 5 6
------------------ ----------- ----------- ------- -------- -----------
uncollided flux 5.28059E-03 3.15856E-06 0.00060
total flux 9.76163E-01 1.06422E-03 0.00109 8.39E+04 X X X X X X
response 1 7.55800E-05 8.63873E-08 0.00114 7.64E+04 X X X X X X
------------------ ----------- ----------- ------- -------- -----------
Neutron Region Tally 4. example region tally
average standard relat FOM stat checks
tally/quantity value deviation uncert (/min) 1 2 3 4 5 6
------------------ ----------- ----------- ------- -------- -----------
total flux (tl) 9.75719E-01 5.54774E-05 0.00006 3.09E+07 X X X X X X
total flux (cd) 0.00000E+00
response 1 7.55800E-05 8.63873E-08 0.00114 7.64E+04 X X X X X X
------------------ ----------- ----------- ------- -------- -----------h]h/XFinal Tally Results Summary
============================
Neutron Point Detector 2. example point detector
average standard relat FOM stat checks
tally/quantity value deviation uncert (/min) 1 2 3 4 5 6
------------------ ----------- ----------- ------- -------- -----------
uncollided flux 5.28059E-03 3.15856E-06 0.00060
total flux 9.76163E-01 1.06422E-03 0.00109 8.39E+04 X X X X X X
response 1 7.55800E-05 8.63873E-08 0.00114 7.64E+04 X X X X X X
------------------ ----------- ----------- ------- -------- -----------
Neutron Region Tally 4. example region tally
average standard relat FOM stat checks
tally/quantity value deviation uncert (/min) 1 2 3 4 5 6
------------------ ----------- ----------- ------- -------- -----------
total flux (tl) 9.75719E-01 5.54774E-05 0.00006 3.09E+07 X X X X X X
total flux (cd) 0.00000E+00
response 1 7.55800E-05 8.63873E-08 0.00114 7.64E+04 X X X X X X
------------------ ----------- ----------- ------- -------- -----------}(hhh jeubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjuhjh!h"hMa
h juehhubh;)}(hXThe fluxes reported are the total fluxes. Note the close agreement
between the point detector flux and the region tally track-length
estimate. The region tally did not produce a collision-density estimate
of flux since the region was a void. Also notice that the neutron dose
(response 1) from both tallies match well. The tally details that are
saved in the \*.pd*.txt or \*.rt*.txt files are shown in :numref:`tab8-23`.
Group values for the mesh tally were obtained through the Mesh File
Viewer.h](h/XThe fluxes reported are the total fluxes. Note the close agreement
between the point detector flux and the region tally track-length
estimate. The region tally did not produce a collision-density estimate
of flux since the region was a void. Also notice that the neutron dose
(response 1) from both tallies match well. The tally details that are
saved in the *.pd*.txt or *.rt*.txt files are shown in }(hXThe fluxes reported are the total fluxes. Note the close agreement
between the point detector flux and the region tally track-length
estimate. The region tally did not produce a collision-density estimate
of flux since the region was a void. Also notice that the neutron dose
(response 1) from both tallies match well. The tally details that are
saved in the \*.pd*.txt or \*.rt*.txt files are shown in h jehhh!NhNubj)}(h:numref:`tab8-23`h]j
)}(hjeh]h/tab8-23}(hhh jeubah}(h]h](jstd
std-numrefeh]h]h]uhjh jeubah}(h]h]h]h]h]refdocj refdomainjereftypenumrefrefexplicitrefwarnj*tab8-23uhjh!h"hMv
h jeubh/M.
Group values for the mesh tally were obtained through the Mesh File
Viewer.}(hM.
Group values for the mesh tally were obtained through the Mesh File
Viewer.h jehhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMv
h juehhubh;)}(hXFor the mesh tally, the total neutron flux and neutron dose can be
visualized using the Mesh File Viewer, as shown in :numref:`fig8-15` and :numref:`fig8-16`. Using the mouse in the
viewer, the flux and the dose rate for the cell that contains the
detector location (100,0,0) are found to be 1.004 ± 2.3%
n/cm\ :sup:`2`/s and 7.82×10\ :sup:`‑5` ± 2.4% rem/hr, respectively,
matching the other tallies well, given the higher uncertainties for the
mesh tally.h](h/vFor the mesh tally, the total neutron flux and neutron dose can be
visualized using the Mesh File Viewer, as shown in }(hvFor the mesh tally, the total neutron flux and neutron dose can be
visualized using the Mesh File Viewer, as shown in h jehhh!NhNubj)}(h:numref:`fig8-15`h]j
)}(hjeh]h/fig8-15}(hhh jeubah}(h]h](jstd
std-numrefeh]h]h]uhjh jeubah}(h]h]h]h]h]refdocj refdomainjereftypenumrefrefexplicitrefwarnj*fig8-15uhjh!h"hM
h jeubh/ and }(h and h jehhh!NhNubj)}(h:numref:`fig8-16`h]j
)}(hjfh]h/fig8-16}(hhh jfubah}(h]h](jstd
std-numrefeh]h]h]uhjh jfubah}(h]h]h]h]h]refdocj refdomainj!freftypenumrefrefexplicitrefwarnj*fig8-16uhjh!h"hM
h jeubh/. Using the mouse in the
viewer, the flux and the dose rate for the cell that contains the
detector location (100,0,0) are found to be 1.004 ± 2.3%
n/cm }(h. Using the mouse in the
viewer, the flux and the dose rate for the cell that contains the
detector location (100,0,0) are found to be 1.004 ± 2.3%
n/cm\ h jehhh!NhNubj")}(h:sup:`2`h]h/2}(hhh j8fubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj"h jeubh//s and 7.82×10 }(h/s and 7.82×10\ h jehhh!NhNubj")}(h:sup:`‑5`h]h/‑5}(hhh jKfubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj"h jeubh/r ± 2.4% rem/hr, respectively,
matching the other tallies well, given the higher uncertainties for the
mesh tally.}(hr ± 2.4% rem/hr, respectively,
matching the other tallies well, given the higher uncertainties for the
mesh tally.h jehhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM
h juehhubh;)}(hXA comparison of the results of all three Monaco tallies to the two
experimental measurements is shown in :numref:`fig8-17` through
:numref:`fig8-21` for different cross section libraries. Note
that the point detector results and the region tally results are the
same for most of the energy range shown. The line representing the mesh
tally result becomes broken in some plots because no neutrons of certain
energy groups crossed this particular mesh cell. These four plots are
each for 10 minutes of computation using a 2 GHz Linux processor.h](h/iA comparison of the results of all three Monaco tallies to the two
experimental measurements is shown in }(hiA comparison of the results of all three Monaco tallies to the two
experimental measurements is shown in h jdfhhh!NhNubj)}(h:numref:`fig8-17`h]j
)}(hjofh]h/fig8-17}(hhh jqfubah}(h]h](jstd
std-numrefeh]h]h]uhjh jmfubah}(h]h]h]h]h]refdocj refdomainj{freftypenumrefrefexplicitrefwarnj*fig8-17uhjh!h"hM
h jdfubh/ through
}(h through
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h jdfubh/X for different cross section libraries. Note
that the point detector results and the region tally results are the
same for most of the energy range shown. The line representing the mesh
tally result becomes broken in some plots because no neutrons of certain
energy groups crossed this particular mesh cell. These four plots are
each for 10 minutes of computation using a 2 GHz Linux processor.}(hX for different cross section libraries. Note
that the point detector results and the region tally results are the
same for most of the energy range shown. The line representing the mesh
tally result becomes broken in some plots because no neutrons of certain
energy groups crossed this particular mesh cell. These four plots are
each for 10 minutes of computation using a 2 GHz Linux processor.h jdfhhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM
h juehhubh;)}(hUsing the library with finer groups, the Monaco results show more of the
structure seen in the experiments over the energy range from 0.01 MeV to
1.0 MeV, as shown in :numref:`fig8-18` and :numref:`fig8-19`.h](h/Using the library with finer groups, the Monaco results show more of the
structure seen in the experiments over the energy range from 0.01 MeV to
1.0 MeV, as shown in }(hUsing the library with finer groups, the Monaco results show more of the
structure seen in the experiments over the energy range from 0.01 MeV to
1.0 MeV, as shown in h jfhhh!NhNubj)}(h:numref:`fig8-18`h]j
)}(hjfh]h/fig8-18}(hhh jfubah}(h]h](jstd
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h juehhh!h"ubj)}(hhh](h))}(hFGroup-by-group details of the three flux tallies (ENDF/B-VII.0 27n19g)h]h/FGroup-by-group details of the three flux tallies (ENDF/B-VII.0 27n19g)}(hj%gh j#gubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h!h"hM
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h jgubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j}gubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j}gubj)}(hhh]h;)}(hRegion
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h jhubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jhubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h **value**h]j)}(hjBhh]h/value}(hhh jDhubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j@hubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM
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7h jxubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM
h jwubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jwubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h0.6451h]h/0.6451}(hjxh jxubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM
h jxubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jwubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jhubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h5.000E-\
02h]h/5.000E-
02}(h5.000E-\
02h j:xubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM
h j7xubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j4xubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j4xubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j4xubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h
6.61E-0\
8h]h/
6.61E-0
8}(h
6.61E-0\
8h jdxubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM
h jaxubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j4xubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h0.4590h]h/0.4590}(hj~xh j|xubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM
h jyxubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j4xubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j4xubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j4xubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jhubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h3.000E-\
02h]h/3.000E-
02}(h3.000E-\
02h jxubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM
h jxubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jxubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jxubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jxubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h
6.59E-1\
0h]h/
6.59E-1
0}(h
6.59E-1\
0h jxubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM
h jxubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jxubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h0.4491h]h/0.4491}(hjxh jxubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM
h jxubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jxubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jxubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jxubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jhubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h1.000E-\
02h]h/1.000E-
02}(h1.000E-\
02h j"yubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM
h jyubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jyubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jyubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jyubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h
6.90E-1\
3h]h/
6.90E-1
3}(h
6.90E-1\
3h jLyubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM
h jIyubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jyubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h0.3458h]h/0.3458}(hjfyh jdyubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM
h jayubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jyubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jyubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jyubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jhubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h1.000E-\
05h]h/1.000E-
05}(h1.000E-\
05h jyubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM
h jyubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jyubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jyubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jyubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jyubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jyubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jyubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jyubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jhubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj<h j1gubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]colsKuhjh j gubeh}(h](id39jgeh]h]tab8-23ah]h]jicenteruhjh juehhh!h"hNj}jyjgsj}jgjgsubh)}(h.. _fig8-15:h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hfig8-15uhh
hM
h juehhh!h"ubj)}(hhh](j)}(hT.. figure:: figs/Monaco/8-15.png
:align: center
Total neutron flux in n/cm2/s.
h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]urifigs/Monaco/8-15.pngj.}j0jzsuhjh j
zh!h"hM
ubj2)}(hTotal neutron flux in n/cm2/s.h]h/Total neutron flux in n/cm2/s.}(hjzh jzubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj1h!h"hM
h j
zubeh}(h](id40j zeh]h]fig8-15ah]h]jicenteruhjhM
h juehhh!h"j}j-zjysj}j zjysubh)}(h.. _fig8-16:h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hfig8-16uhh
hM
h juehhh!h"ubj)}(hhh](j)}(hR.. figure:: figs/Monaco/8-16.png
:align: center
Neutron dose rate in rem/hr.
h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]urifigs/Monaco/8-16.pngj.}j0jLzsuhjh j>zh!h"hMubj2)}(hNeutron dose rate in rem/hr.h]h/Neutron dose rate in rem/hr.}(hjPzh jNzubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj1h!h"hMh j>zubeh}(h](id41j=zeh]h]fig8-16ah]h]jicenteruhjhMh juehhh!h"j}jazj3zsj}j=zj3zsubh)}(h.. _fig8-17:h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hfig8-17uhh
hMh juehhh!h"ubj)}(hhh](j)}(h.. figure:: figs/Monaco/8-17.png
:align: center
:width: 500
Comparison of Monaco results using the ENDF/B-VII.0 27n/19g library and the measured values.
h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]width500urifigs/Monaco/8-17.pngj.}j0jzsuhjh jrzh!h"hMubj2)}(h\Comparison of Monaco results using the ENDF/B-VII.0 27n/19g library and the measured values.h]h/\Comparison of Monaco results using the ENDF/B-VII.0 27n/19g library and the measured values.}(hjzh jzubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj1h!h"hMh jrzubeh}(h](id42jqzeh]h]fig8-17ah]h]jicenteruhjhMh juehhh!h"j}jzjgzsj}jqzjgzsubh)}(h.. _fig8-18:h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hfig8-18uhh
hM h juehhh!h"ubj)}(hhh](j)}(h.. figure:: figs/Monaco/8-18.png
:align: center
:width: 500
Comparison of Monaco results using the new ENDF/B-VII.0 200n/47g library and the measured values.
h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]width500urifigs/Monaco/8-18.pngj.}j0jzsuhjh jzh!h"hMubj2)}(haComparison of Monaco results using the new ENDF/B-VII.0 200n/47g library and the measured values.h]h/aComparison of Monaco results using the new ENDF/B-VII.0 200n/47g library and the measured values.}(hjzh jzubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj1h!h"hMh jzubeh}(h](id43jzeh]h]fig8-18ah]h]jicenteruhjhMh juehhh!h"j}jzjzsj}jzjzsubh)}(h.. _fig8-19:h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hfig8-19uhh
hMh juehhh!h"ubj)}(hhh](j)}(h.. figure:: figs/Monaco/8-19.png
:align: center
Comparison of Monaco results using the ENDF/B-VII 238n library and the measured values.
h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]urifigs/Monaco/8-19.pngj.}j0jzsuhjh jzh!h"hMubj2)}(hWComparison of Monaco results using the ENDF/B-VII 238n library and the measured values.h]h/WComparison of Monaco results using the ENDF/B-VII 238n library and the measured values.}(hjzh jzubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj1h!h"hMh jzubeh}(h](id44jzeh]h]fig8-19ah]h]jicenteruhjhMh juehhh!h"j}j{jzsj}jzjzsubh)}(h.. _fig8-20:h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hfig8-20uhh
hMh juehhh!h"ubj)}(hhh](j)}(h.. figure:: figs/Monaco/8-20.png
:align: center
:width: 500
Comparison of Monaco results using the ENDF/B-VII 252n library and the measured values.
h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]width500urifigs/Monaco/8-20.pngj.}j0j"{suhjh j{h!h"hMubj2)}(hWComparison of Monaco results using the ENDF/B-VII 252n library and the measured values.h]h/WComparison of Monaco results using the ENDF/B-VII 252n library and the measured values.}(hj&{h j${ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj1h!h"hMh j{ubeh}(h](id45j{eh]h]fig8-20ah]h]jicenteruhjhMh juehhh!h"j}j7{j{sj}j{j{subh)}(h.. _fig8-21:h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hfig8-21uhh
hMh juehhh!h"ubj)}(hhh](j)}(h.. figure:: figs/Monaco/8-21.png
:align: center
Comparison of Monaco results using the ENDF/B-VII CE n/p library (binned using the 200n group structure) and the measured values.
h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]urifigs/Monaco/8-21.pngj.}j0jV{suhjh jH{h!h"hM!ubj2)}(hComparison of Monaco results using the ENDF/B-VII CE n/p library (binned using the 200n group structure) and the measured values.h]h/Comparison of Monaco results using the ENDF/B-VII CE n/p library (binned using the 200n group structure) and the measured values.}(hjZ{h jX{ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj1h!h"hM!h jH{ubeh}(h](id46jG{eh]h]fig8-21ah]h]jicenteruhjhM!h juehhh!h"j}jk{j={sj}jG{j={subeh}(h]outputah]h]h]outputah]uhh#h jbhhh!h"hMP
jKubeh}(h]+neutron-transmission-through-an-iron-sphereah]h]+neutron transmission through an iron sphereah]h]uhh#h jbhhh!h"hMoubh$)}(hhh](h))}(h%Neutrons through a heavy water sphereh]h/%Neutrons through a heavy water sphere}(hj{h j{hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h j{hhh!h"hM$ubh;)}(hXSimilar to the first example problem, :sup:`252`\ Cf neutrons were
measured outside of a sphere filled with heavy water :cite:`jansky_comparison_1997` Two
measurements were made: one without the iron/polyethylene shield and one
with the shield. These two measurements were subtracted to account for
scatter from the floor (which is about a 5% effect for energies above
10 keV). A great amount of detail is given for the materials and
geometry of the source holder, insertion tube, and detectors in Ref. 6.
For this sample problem, just the basics will be modeled in two inputs:
``monaco.d2oSphereA.inp`` and ``monaco.d2oSphereB.inp``, both located in the
SCALE ``samples\input`` directory.h](h/&Similar to the first example problem, }(h&Similar to the first example problem, h j{hhh!NhNubj")}(h
:sup:`252`h]h/252}(hhh j{ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj"h j{ubh/H Cf neutrons were
measured outside of a sphere filled with heavy water }(hH\ Cf neutrons were
measured outside of a sphere filled with heavy water h j{hhh!NhNubj)}(hjansky_comparison_1997h]j)}(hj{h]h/[jansky_comparison_1997]}(hhh j{ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j{ubah}(h]id10ah]jah]h]h] refdomainjreftypej reftargetj{refwarnsupport_smartquotesuhjh!h"hM&h j{hhubh/X Two
measurements were made: one without the iron/polyethylene shield and one
with the shield. These two measurements were subtracted to account for
scatter from the floor (which is about a 5% effect for energies above
10 keV). A great amount of detail is given for the materials and
geometry of the source holder, insertion tube, and detectors in Ref. 6.
For this sample problem, just the basics will be modeled in two inputs:
}(hX Two
measurements were made: one without the iron/polyethylene shield and one
with the shield. These two measurements were subtracted to account for
scatter from the floor (which is about a 5% effect for energies above
10 keV). A great amount of detail is given for the materials and
geometry of the source holder, insertion tube, and detectors in Ref. 6.
For this sample problem, just the basics will be modeled in two inputs:
h j{hhh!NhNubj
)}(h``monaco.d2oSphereA.inp``h]h/monaco.d2oSphereA.inp}(hhh j{ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j{ubh/ and }(h and h j{hhh!NhNubj
)}(h``monaco.d2oSphereB.inp``h]h/monaco.d2oSphereB.inp}(hhh j{ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j{ubh/, both located in the
SCALE }(h, both located in the
SCALE h j{hhh!NhNubj
)}(h``samples\input``h]h/
samples\input}(hhh j{ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j{ubh/ directory.}(h directory.h j{hhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM&h j{hhubh)}(h.. _fig8-22:h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hfig8-22uhh
hM1h j{hhh!h"ubj)}(hhh](j)}(hI.. figure:: figs/Monaco/8-22.png
:align: center
Experimental setup.
h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]urifigs/Monaco/8-22.pngj.}j0j(|suhjh j|h!h"hM5ubj2)}(hExperimental setup.h]h/Experimental setup.}(hj,|h j*|ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj1h!h"hM5h j|ubeh}(h](id47j|eh]h]fig8-22ah]h]jicenteruhjhM5h j{hhh!h"j}j=|j|sj}j|j|subh$)}(hhh](h))}(hInputh]h/Input}(hjH|h jF|hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h jC|hhh!h"hM8ubh;)}(hZFirst, the cross sections for four materials need to be computed. Here, csas-mg is used:h]h/ZFirst, the cross sections for four materials need to be computed. Here, csas-mg is used:}(hjV|h jT|hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM:h jC|hhubj)}(hXM=csas-mg
Leakage spectrum of Cf-252 through a heavy water sphere
v7-27n19g
read composition
d2o 1 0.99286 293.0 end
h2o 1 0.00714 293.0 end
polyethylene 2 0.882 293.0 end
boron 2 0.118 293.0 end
iron 3 1.0 293.0 end
orconcrete 4 1.0 293.0 end
end composition
endh]h/XM=csas-mg
Leakage spectrum of Cf-252 through a heavy water sphere
v7-27n19g
read composition
d2o 1 0.99286 293.0 end
h2o 1 0.00714 293.0 end
polyethylene 2 0.882 293.0 end
boron 2 0.118 293.0 end
iron 3 1.0 293.0 end
orconcrete 4 1.0 293.0 end
end composition
end}(hhh jb|ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjuhjh!h"hM>h jC|hhubh;)}(hIThe Monaco input file starts with module name (“monaco”) and a title.h]h/IThe Monaco input file starts with module name (“monaco”) and a title.}(hjr|h jp|hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMKh jC|hhubj)}(hP=monaco
Leakage spectrum of Cf-252 through a heavy water sphere, shield in placeh]h/P=monaco
Leakage spectrum of Cf-252 through a heavy water sphere, shield in place}(hhh j~|ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjuhjh!h"hMOh jC|hhubh;)}(hThe mixing table information can be found in the output of the above
csas-mg run. The newer ENDF/B-VII libraries contain isotopic data for
iron, instead of just the elemental data in the older ENDF/B-V
libraries.h]h/The mixing table information can be found in the output of the above
csas-mg run. The newer ENDF/B-VII libraries contain isotopic data for
iron, instead of just the elemental data in the older ENDF/B-V
libraries.}(hj|h j|hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMRh jC|hhubj)}(hhh]j)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]jiK2uhjh j|ubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]jiK2uhjh j|ubj=)}(hhh]j)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]j)}(hX:read crossSections
ampxFileUnit=4
mixture 1
element 1002 6.60172E-02
element 8016 3.32469E-02
element 1001 4.76617E-04
end mixture
mixture 2
element 9001001 6.96775E-02
element 6000 3.48387E-02
element 5010 3.10004E-03
element 5011 1.24780E-02
end mixture
mixture 3
element 26054 4.95419E-03
element 26056 7.77702E-02
element 26057 1.79605E-03
element 26058 2.39022E-04
end mixtureh]h/X:read crossSections
ampxFileUnit=4
mixture 1
element 1002 6.60172E-02
element 8016 3.32469E-02
element 1001 4.76617E-04
end mixture
mixture 2
element 9001001 6.96775E-02
element 6000 3.48387E-02
element 5010 3.10004E-03
element 5011 1.24780E-02
end mixture
mixture 3
element 26054 4.95419E-03
element 26056 7.77702E-02
element 26057 1.79605E-03
element 26058 2.39022E-04
end mixture}(hhh j|ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjuhjh!h"hM\h j|ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j|ubj)}(hhh]j)}(hX mixture 4
element 26054 1.12815E-05
element 26056 1.77096E-04
element 26057 4.08991E-06
element 26058 5.44292E-07
element 1001 8.50077E-03
element 6000 2.01991E-02
element 8016 3.55123E-02
element 11023 1.63230E-05
element 12024 1.46935E-03
element 12025 1.86017E-04
element 12026 2.04805E-04
element 13027 5.55811E-04
element 14028 1.56780E-03
element 14029 7.96453E-05
element 14030 5.25642E-05
element 19039 3.75869E-05
element 19040 4.71559E-09
element 19041 2.71255E-06
element 20040 1.07616E-02
element 20042 7.18248E-05
element 20043 1.49866E-05
element 20044 2.31571E-04
element 20046 4.44048E-07
element 20048 2.07592E-05
end mixture
end crossSectionsh]h/X mixture 4
element 26054 1.12815E-05
element 26056 1.77096E-04
element 26057 4.08991E-06
element 26058 5.44292E-07
element 1001 8.50077E-03
element 6000 2.01991E-02
element 8016 3.55123E-02
element 11023 1.63230E-05
element 12024 1.46935E-03
element 12025 1.86017E-04
element 12026 2.04805E-04
element 13027 5.55811E-04
element 14028 1.56780E-03
element 14029 7.96453E-05
element 14030 5.25642E-05
element 19039 3.75869E-05
element 19040 4.71559E-09
element 19041 2.71255E-06
element 20040 1.07616E-02
element 20042 7.18248E-05
element 20043 1.49866E-05
element 20044 2.31571E-04
element 20046 4.44048E-07
element 20048 2.07592E-05
end mixture
end crossSections}(hhh j|ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjuhjh!h"hMth j|ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j|ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j|ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj<h j|ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]colsKuhjh j|ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jicenteruhjh jC|hhh!NhNubh;)}(hXThe SGGP geometry consists of two nested spheres for the source and
heavy water sphere. Four cylindrical shields made of either borated
polyethylene or iron are placed between the sphere and the detector
position (75,0,0). The experiment sat 2 m above the floor of an
experimental hall that measured 10 × 13 × 25 m. Here, the origin
corresponds to the source at the center of the heavy water sphere.h]h/XThe SGGP geometry consists of two nested spheres for the source and
heavy water sphere. Four cylindrical shields made of either borated
polyethylene or iron are placed between the sphere and the detector
position (75,0,0). The experiment sat 2 m above the floor of an
experimental hall that measured 10 × 13 × 25 m. Here, the origin
corresponds to the source at the center of the heavy water sphere.}(hj}h j}hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jC|hhubj)}(hXread geometry
global unit 1
sphere 10 0.5
sphere 11 15.0
sphere 21 2.0 origin x=75.0
xcylinder 31 15.0 26.0 31.0
xcylinder 32 11.25 31.0 39.0
xcylinder 33 9.00 39.0 47.0
xcylinder 34 7.25 47.0 55.0
cuboid 41 650.0 -650 500 -500 2300 -200
cuboid 42 750.0 -750 600 -600 2400 -300
media 0 1 10
media 1 1 11 -10
media 0 1 21 vol=33.510322
media 3 1 31
media 2 1 32
media 2 1 33
media 2 1 34
media 0 1 41 -11 -21 -31 -32 -33 -34
media 4 1 42 -41
boundary 42
end geometryh]h/Xread geometry
global unit 1
sphere 10 0.5
sphere 11 15.0
sphere 21 2.0 origin x=75.0
xcylinder 31 15.0 26.0 31.0
xcylinder 32 11.25 31.0 39.0
xcylinder 33 9.00 39.0 47.0
xcylinder 34 7.25 47.0 55.0
cuboid 41 650.0 -650 500 -500 2300 -200
cuboid 42 750.0 -750 600 -600 2400 -300
media 0 1 10
media 1 1 11 -10
media 0 1 21 vol=33.510322
media 3 1 31
media 2 1 32
media 2 1 33
media 2 1 34
media 0 1 41 -11 -21 -31 -32 -33 -34
media 4 1 42 -41
boundary 42
end geometry}(hhh j}ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjuhjh!h"hMh jC|hhubh;)}(hA second input file (``samples\input\monaco.d2oSphereA.inp``) was created
for the geometry without the four xcylinder shields in place.h](h/A second input file (}(hA second input file (h j}hhh!NhNubj
)}(h'``samples\input\monaco.d2oSphereA.inp``h]h/#samples\input\monaco.d2oSphereA.inp}(hhh j%}ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j}ubh/L) was created
for the geometry without the four xcylinder shields in place.}(hL) was created
for the geometry without the four xcylinder shields in place.h j}hhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jC|hhubh;)}(hFor this example, a point detector will be used to calculate the flux at
the detector location and the source will require a Watt distribution.h]h/For this example, a point detector will be used to calculate the flux at
the detector location and the source will require a Watt distribution.}(hj@}h j>}hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jC|hhubj)}(hX;read definitions
location 1
title="true detector location"
position 75.0 0.0 0.0
end location
distribution 1
title="Cf-252 neutrons, Watt spectrum a=1.025 MeV and b=2.926/MeV"
special="wattSpectrum"
parameters 1.025 2.926 end
end distribution
end definitionsh]h/X;read definitions
location 1
title="true detector location"
position 75.0 0.0 0.0
end location
distribution 1
title="Cf-252 neutrons, Watt spectrum a=1.025 MeV and b=2.926/MeV"
special="wattSpectrum"
parameters 1.025 2.926 end
end distribution
end definitions}(hhh jL}ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjuhjh!h"hMh jC|hhubh;)}(hThe strength is set so that the total flux at the detector (at
*r*\ =75 cm) without any shield would be 1 n/cm\ :sup:`2`/s. So,
strength = 4π(75)\ :sup:`2` = 70686 n/s.h](h/?The strength is set so that the total flux at the detector (at
}(h?The strength is set so that the total flux at the detector (at
h jZ}hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*r*h]h/r}(hhh jc}ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jZ}ubh/0 =75 cm) without any shield would be 1 n/cm }(h0\ =75 cm) without any shield would be 1 n/cm\ h jZ}hhh!NhNubj")}(h:sup:`2`h]h/2}(hhh jv}ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj"h jZ}ubh//s. So,
strength = 4π(75) }(h/s. So,
strength = 4π(75)\ h jZ}hhh!NhNubj")}(h:sup:`2`h]h/2}(hhh j}ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj"h jZ}ubh/ = 70686 n/s.}(h = 70686 n/s.h jZ}hhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jC|hhubj)}(hread sources
src 1
title="Cf-252 neutrons, Watt fission spectrum, using a=1.025 and b=2.926"
neutrons strength=70685.834704
sphere 0.1
eDistributionID=1
end src
end sourcesh]h/read sources
src 1
title="Cf-252 neutrons, Watt fission spectrum, using a=1.025 and b=2.926"
neutrons strength=70685.834704
sphere 0.1
eDistributionID=1
end src
end sources}(hhh j}ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjuhjh!h"hMh jC|hhubh;)}(hTwo tallies will be defined: a region tally over the third region of
unit 1 and a point detector tally at the true detector location.h]h/Two tallies will be defined: a region tally over the third region of
unit 1 and a point detector tally at the true detector location.}(hj}h j}hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jC|hhubj)}(hXread tallies
regionTally 3
title="example region tally"
neutron
unit=1 region=3
end regionTally
pointDetector 2
title="example point detector"
neutron
locationID=1
end pointDetector
end talliesh]h/Xread tallies
regionTally 3
title="example region tally"
neutron
unit=1 region=3
end regionTally
pointDetector 2
title="example point detector"
neutron
locationID=1
end pointDetector
end tallies}(hhh j}ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjuhjh!h"hMh jC|hhubh;)}(hX Monte Carlo parameters include the starting random number seed, the
number of particles per batch, and the number of batches to simulate.
Since there are no photon tallies, the keyword “secondaryMult=0” is used
so that photons are not produced nor transported.h]h/X Monte Carlo parameters include the starting random number seed, the
number of particles per batch, and the number of batches to simulate.
Since there are no photon tallies, the keyword “secondaryMult=0” is used
so that photons are not produced nor transported.}(hj}h j}hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jC|hhubj)}(hread parameters
randomSeed=8655745262010035
perBatch=18700 batches=90
neutrons noPhotons
fissionMult=0 secondaryMult=0
end parametersh]h/read parameters
randomSeed=8655745262010035
perBatch=18700 batches=90
neutrons noPhotons
fissionMult=0 secondaryMult=0
end parameters}(hhh j}ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjuhjh!h"hMh jC|hhubh;)}(h,Finally, the Monaco input file is ended withh]h/,Finally, the Monaco input file is ended with}(hj}h j}hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jC|hhubj)}(hend data
endh]h/end data
end}(hhh j}ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjuhjh!h"hMh jC|hhubeh}(h]id11ah]h]h]jseah]uhh#h j{hhh!h"hM8jKubh$)}(hhh](h))}(hOutputh]h/Output}(hj~h j~hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h j~hhh!h"hMubh;)}(hjFor the case without the xcylinder shields, the tally summaries from the main output file are reported as:h]h/jFor the case without the xcylinder shields, the tally summaries from the main output file are reported as:}(hj~h j~hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j~hhubj)}(hXNeutron Point Detector 2. example point detector
average standard relat FOM stat checks
tally/quantity value deviation uncert (/min) 1 2 3 4 5 6
------------------ ----------- ----------- ------- -------- -----------
uncollided flux 4.20334E-02 6.81217E-05 0.00162
total flux 1.13349E+00 3.28455E-03 0.00290 1.18E+04 X X X X X X
------------------ ----------- ----------- ------- -------- -----------
Neutron Region Tally 3. example region tally
average standard relat FOM stat checks
tally/quantity value deviation uncert (/min) 1 2 3 4 5 6
------------------ ----------- ----------- ------- -------- -----------
total flux (tl) 1.00584E+00 1.47136E-01 0.14628 4.64E+00 - - - X X -
total flux (cd) 0.00000E+00
------------------ ----------- ----------- ------- -------- -----------h]h/XNeutron Point Detector 2. example point detector
average standard relat FOM stat checks
tally/quantity value deviation uncert (/min) 1 2 3 4 5 6
------------------ ----------- ----------- ------- -------- -----------
uncollided flux 4.20334E-02 6.81217E-05 0.00162
total flux 1.13349E+00 3.28455E-03 0.00290 1.18E+04 X X X X X X
------------------ ----------- ----------- ------- -------- -----------
Neutron Region Tally 3. example region tally
average standard relat FOM stat checks
tally/quantity value deviation uncert (/min) 1 2 3 4 5 6
------------------ ----------- ----------- ------- -------- -----------
total flux (tl) 1.00584E+00 1.47136E-01 0.14628 4.64E+00 - - - X X -
total flux (cd) 0.00000E+00
------------------ ----------- ----------- ------- -------- -----------}(hhh j*~ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjuhjh!h"hMh j~hhubh;)}(hX:Note that in this sample calculation (10 minutes), the region tally did
not pass all of the statistical checks and the relative uncertainty for
the region tally is very large due to the region’s small size. This
shows how useful a point detector tally can be in estimating fluxes for
hard‑to‑reach locations.h]h/X:Note that in this sample calculation (10 minutes), the region tally did
not pass all of the statistical checks and the relative uncertainty for
the region tally is very large due to the region’s small size. This
shows how useful a point detector tally can be in estimating fluxes for
hard‑to‑reach locations.}(hj:~h j8~hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j~hhubh;)}(hWFor the case with the xcylinder shields in place (450 minutes), the
final results were:h]h/WFor the case with the xcylinder shields in place (450 minutes), the
final results were:}(hjH~h jF~hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j~hhubj)}(hXNeutron Point Detector 2
average standard relat FOM stat checks
tally/quantity value deviation uncert (/min) 1 2 3 4 5 6
------------------ ----------- ----------- ------- -------- -----------
uncollided flux 8.37999E-05 1.44384E-07 0.00172
total flux 1.26869E-01 1.10733E-04 0.00087 4.80E+03 X X X X X X
------------------ ----------- ----------- ------- -------- -----------
Neutron Region Tally 3. example region tally
average standard relat FOM stat checks
tally/quantity value deviation uncert (/min) 1 2 3 4 5 6
------------------ ----------- ----------- ------- -------- -----------
total flux (tl) 1.40236E-01 1.22375E-02 0.08726 4.80E-01 - - - X X -
total flux (cd) 0.00000E+00
------------------ ----------- ----------- ------- -------- -----------h]h/XNeutron Point Detector 2
average standard relat FOM stat checks
tally/quantity value deviation uncert (/min) 1 2 3 4 5 6
------------------ ----------- ----------- ------- -------- -----------
uncollided flux 8.37999E-05 1.44384E-07 0.00172
total flux 1.26869E-01 1.10733E-04 0.00087 4.80E+03 X X X X X X
------------------ ----------- ----------- ------- -------- -----------
Neutron Region Tally 3. example region tally
average standard relat FOM stat checks
tally/quantity value deviation uncert (/min) 1 2 3 4 5 6
------------------ ----------- ----------- ------- -------- -----------
total flux (tl) 1.40236E-01 1.22375E-02 0.08726 4.80E-01 - - - X X -
total flux (cd) 0.00000E+00
------------------ ----------- ----------- ------- -------- -----------}(hhh jT~ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjuhjh!h"hMh j~hhubh;)}(hXHere again, the region tally performed very poorly, showing that very
few neutrons actually crossed the tally region. The four shields make
this problem very slow to converge because rare particles can arrive at
the detector after paths that see different amounts of shield.h]h/XHere again, the region tally performed very poorly, showing that very
few neutrons actually crossed the tally region. The four shields make
this problem very slow to converge because rare particles can arrive at
the detector after paths that see different amounts of shield.}(hjd~h jb~hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM/h j~hhubh;)}(hXThe group-wise results list in the point detector detail files from each
case can be subtracted and compared to the measurements and calculations
listed in :cite:`jansky_comparison_1997`. The computed and measured neutron spectra seen by the
detector are shown in :numref:`fig8-23` through :numref:`fig8-27`
using different cross-section libraries. For each figure, the
computational times for case “A”, without the shields and case “B”, with
the shields, were 10 minutes and 90 minutes, each on a 2 GHz Linux
processor. For the CE case, 100 and 900 minutes were used to reduce the
statistical uncertainties. Except for the 27/19 multigroup case shown
above, none of the “B” cases passed all of the statistical tests.h](h/The group-wise results list in the point detector detail files from each
case can be subtracted and compared to the measurements and calculations
listed in }(hThe group-wise results list in the point detector detail files from each
case can be subtracted and compared to the measurements and calculations
listed in h jp~hhh!NhNubj)}(hjansky_comparison_1997h]j)}(hj{~h]h/[jansky_comparison_1997]}(hhh j}~ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jy~ubah}(h]id13ah]jah]h]h] refdomainjreftypej reftargetj{~refwarnsupport_smartquotesuhjh!h"hM4h jp~hhubh/N. The computed and measured neutron spectra seen by the
detector are shown in }(hN. The computed and measured neutron spectra seen by the
detector are shown in h jp~hhh!NhNubj)}(h:numref:`fig8-23`h]j
)}(hj~h]h/fig8-23}(hhh j~ubah}(h]h](jstd
std-numrefeh]h]h]uhjh j~ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]refdocj refdomainj~reftypenumrefrefexplicitrefwarnj*fig8-23uhjh!h"hM4h jp~ubh/ through }(h through h jp~hhh!NhNubj)}(h:numref:`fig8-27`h]j
)}(hj~h]h/fig8-27}(hhh j~ubah}(h]h](jstd
std-numrefeh]h]h]uhjh j~ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]refdocj refdomainj~reftypenumrefrefexplicitrefwarnj*fig8-27uhjh!h"hM4h jp~ubh/X
using different cross-section libraries. For each figure, the
computational times for case “A”, without the shields and case “B”, with
the shields, were 10 minutes and 90 minutes, each on a 2 GHz Linux
processor. For the CE case, 100 and 900 minutes were used to reduce the
statistical uncertainties. Except for the 27/19 multigroup case shown
above, none of the “B” cases passed all of the statistical tests.}(hX
using different cross-section libraries. For each figure, the
computational times for case “A”, without the shields and case “B”, with
the shields, were 10 minutes and 90 minutes, each on a 2 GHz Linux
processor. For the CE case, 100 and 900 minutes were used to reduce the
statistical uncertainties. Except for the 27/19 multigroup case shown
above, none of the “B” cases passed all of the statistical tests.h jp~hhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM4h j~hhubh)}(h.. _fig8-23:h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hfig8-23uhh
hM?h j~hhh!h"ubj)}(hhh](j)}(h.. figure:: figs/Monaco/8-23.png
:align: center
Comparison of Monaco calculated results using the ENDF/B-VII.0 27n/19g library to the measured values.
h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]urifigs/Monaco/8-23.pngj.}j0jsuhjh j~h!h"hMCubj2)}(hfComparison of Monaco calculated results using the ENDF/B-VII.0 27n/19g library to the measured values.h]h/fComparison of Monaco calculated results using the ENDF/B-VII.0 27n/19g library to the measured values.}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj1h!h"hMCh j~ubeh}(h](id48j~eh]h]fig8-23ah]h]jicenteruhjhMCh j~hhh!h"j}jj~sj}j~j~subh)}(h.. _fig8-24:h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hfig8-24uhh
hMEh j~hhh!h"ubj)}(hhh](j)}(h.. figure:: figs/Monaco/8-24.png
:align: center
Comparison of Monaco calculated results using the ENDF/B-VII.0 200n/47g library to the measured values.
h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]urifigs/Monaco/8-24.pngj.}j0j8suhjh j*h!h"hMIubj2)}(hgComparison of Monaco calculated results using the ENDF/B-VII.0 200n/47g library to the measured values.h]h/gComparison of Monaco calculated results using the ENDF/B-VII.0 200n/47g library to the measured values.}(hj<h j:ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj1h!h"hMIh j*ubeh}(h](id49j)eh]h]fig8-24ah]h]jicenteruhjhMIh j~hhh!h"j}jMjsj}j)jsubh)}(h.. _fig8-25:h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hfig8-25uhh
hMKh j~hhh!h"ubj)}(hhh](j)}(h.. figure:: figs/Monaco/8-25.png
:align: center
Comparison of Monaco calculated results using the ENDF/B-V 238n library to the measured values.
h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]urifigs/Monaco/8-25.pngj.}j0jlsuhjh j^h!h"hMOubj2)}(h_Comparison of Monaco calculated results using the ENDF/B-V 238n library to the measured values.h]h/_Comparison of Monaco calculated results using the ENDF/B-V 238n library to the measured values.}(hjph jnubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj1h!h"hMOh j^ubeh}(h](id50j]eh]h]fig8-25ah]h]jicenteruhjhMOh j~hhh!h"j}jjSsj}j]jSsubh)}(h.. _fig8-26:h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hfig8-26uhh
hMQh j~hhh!h"ubj)}(hhh](j)}(h.. figure:: figs/Monaco/8-26.png
:align: center
Comparison of Monaco calculated results using the ENDF/B-V 252n library to the measured values.
h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]urifigs/Monaco/8-26.pngj.}j0jsuhjh jh!h"hMUubj2)}(h_Comparison of Monaco calculated results using the ENDF/B-V 252n library to the measured values.h]h/_Comparison of Monaco calculated results using the ENDF/B-V 252n library to the measured values.}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj1h!h"hMUh jubeh}(h](id51jeh]h]fig8-26ah]h]jicenteruhjhMUh j~hhh!h"j}jjsj}jjsubh)}(h.. _fig8-27:h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hfig8-27uhh
hMWh j~hhh!h"ubj)}(hhh](j)}(h.. figure:: figs/Monaco/8-27.png
:align: center
Comparison of Monaco calculated results using the ENDF/B-VII CE n/p library (binned using the 200n group structure) to the measured values.
h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]urifigs/Monaco/8-27.pngj.}j0jsuhjh jh!h"hM[ubj2)}(hComparison of Monaco calculated results using the ENDF/B-VII CE n/p library (binned using the 200n group structure) to the measured values.h]h/Comparison of Monaco calculated results using the ENDF/B-VII CE n/p library (binned using the 200n group structure) to the measured values.}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj1h!h"hM[h jubeh}(h](id52jeh]h]fig8-27ah]h]jicenteruhjhM[h j~hhh!h"j}jjsj}jjsubeh}(h]id12ah]h]h]jw{ah]uhh#h j{hhh!h"hMjKubeh}(h]%neutrons-through-a-heavy-water-sphereah]h]%neutrons through a heavy water sphereah]h]uhh#h jbhhh!h"hM$ubh$)}(hhh](h))}(h'Activation rate from a neutron howitzerh]h/'Activation rate from a neutron howitzer}(hjh jhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h jhhh!h"hM^ubh;)}(hXZA *neutron howitzer* is a common laboratory-sized neutron source. A few
curies of an alpha emitter is mixed with an isotope that has a large
(α,n) cross section. This source is then stored in a large tank of
moderating material (water, paraffin, etc.) with an access port.
Materials can be placed into the access port for irradiation. Activation
studies are a typical use of a neutron howitzer. Note that the large
moderator tank also provides shielding for the users. Typical source
strengths are such that users would probably not wish to spend large
amounts of time in front of an open access port.h](h/A }(hA h jhhh!NhNubhA)}(h*neutron howitzer*h]h/neutron howitzer}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jubh/XF is a common laboratory-sized neutron source. A few
curies of an alpha emitter is mixed with an isotope that has a large
(α,n) cross section. This source is then stored in a large tank of
moderating material (water, paraffin, etc.) with an access port.
Materials can be placed into the access port for irradiation. Activation
studies are a typical use of a neutron howitzer. Note that the large
moderator tank also provides shielding for the users. Typical source
strengths are such that users would probably not wish to spend large
amounts of time in front of an open access port.}(hXF is a common laboratory-sized neutron source. A few
curies of an alpha emitter is mixed with an isotope that has a large
(α,n) cross section. This source is then stored in a large tank of
moderating material (water, paraffin, etc.) with an access port.
Materials can be placed into the access port for irradiation. Activation
studies are a typical use of a neutron howitzer. Note that the large
moderator tank also provides shielding for the users. Typical source
strengths are such that users would probably not wish to spend large
amounts of time in front of an open access port.h jhhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM`h jhhubh;)}(hX A typical size and shape for a neutron howitzer is an upright cylinder,
outer radius of 30 cm by 70 cm in height. The outer wall, top, and
bottom are made of 2 cm thick Plexiglas. The access port is a cylinder
of radius 2 cm extending 5 cm away from the tank center through the side
wall. A Plexiglas rod can be removed/inserted into the port for sample
loading. The tank is filled with ordinary water. :numref:`fig8-28` shows a
cutaway view of a very simplified model of the tank with the Plexiglas
rod inserted into the access port, to prevent neutrons from streaming
into the room. The source is located in the center of the tank and is
small enough to be considered a point source. A small foil (1×1×0.001
cm) gold foil :sup:`197`\ Au is included as an activation sample.h](h/XA typical size and shape for a neutron howitzer is an upright cylinder,
outer radius of 30 cm by 70 cm in height. The outer wall, top, and
bottom are made of 2 cm thick Plexiglas. The access port is a cylinder
of radius 2 cm extending 5 cm away from the tank center through the side
wall. A Plexiglas rod can be removed/inserted into the port for sample
loading. The tank is filled with ordinary water. }(hXA typical size and shape for a neutron howitzer is an upright cylinder,
outer radius of 30 cm by 70 cm in height. The outer wall, top, and
bottom are made of 2 cm thick Plexiglas. The access port is a cylinder
of radius 2 cm extending 5 cm away from the tank center through the side
wall. A Plexiglas rod can be removed/inserted into the port for sample
loading. The tank is filled with ordinary water. h j1hhh!NhNubj)}(h:numref:`fig8-28`h]j
)}(hj<h]h/fig8-28}(hhh j>ubah}(h]h](jstd
std-numrefeh]h]h]uhjh j:ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]refdocj refdomainjHreftypenumrefrefexplicitrefwarnj*fig8-28uhjh!h"hMjh j1ubh/X2 shows a
cutaway view of a very simplified model of the tank with the Plexiglas
rod inserted into the access port, to prevent neutrons from streaming
into the room. The source is located in the center of the tank and is
small enough to be considered a point source. A small foil (1×1×0.001
cm) gold foil }(hX2 shows a
cutaway view of a very simplified model of the tank with the Plexiglas
rod inserted into the access port, to prevent neutrons from streaming
into the room. The source is located in the center of the tank and is
small enough to be considered a point source. A small foil (1×1×0.001
cm) gold foil h j1hhh!NhNubj")}(h
:sup:`197`h]h/197}(hhh j_ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj"h j1ubh/) Au is included as an activation sample.}(h)\ Au is included as an activation sample.h j1hhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMjh jhhubh;)}(hvThe goal is to use Monaco to calculate the activation rate density, *R*,
in units of /cm :sup:`3`/s, of the gold foilh](h/DThe goal is to use Monaco to calculate the activation rate density, }(hDThe goal is to use Monaco to calculate the activation rate density, h jxhhh!NhNubhA)}(h*R*h]h/R}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jxubh/,
in units of /cm }(h,
in units of /cm h jxhhh!NhNubj")}(h:sup:`3`h]h/3}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj"h jxubh//s, of the gold foil}(h/s, of the gold foilh jxhhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMvh jhhubh)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hequation-monaco-23uhh
h jhhh!h"hNubj)}(h=R = \int_{}^{}{\Sigma\left( E \right)\phi\left( E \right) dE}h]h/=R = \int_{}^{}{\Sigma\left( E \right)\phi\left( E \right) dE}}(hhh jubah}(h]jah]h]h]h]docnamejnumberKlabel Monaco-23nowrapjjuhjh!h"hMzh jhhj}j}jjsubh;)}(hso that the activity, *A*, can be calculated as a function of time in
the howitzer, *T*, and time outside the howitzer, *t*. Note that the
half-life of :sup:`198`\ Au of 2.7 days (decay constant is
:math:`\lambda`\ =2.97×10\ :sup:`-6` /s).h](h/so that the activity, }(hso that the activity, h j̀hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*A*h]h/A}(hhh jՀubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j̀ubh/;, can be calculated as a function of time in
the howitzer, }(h;, can be calculated as a function of time in
the howitzer, h j̀hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*T*h]h/T}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j̀ubh/!, and time outside the howitzer, }(h!, and time outside the howitzer, h j̀hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*t*h]h/t}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j̀ubh/. Note that the
half-life of }(h. Note that the
half-life of h j̀hhh!NhNubj")}(h
:sup:`198`h]h/198}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj"h j̀ubh/$ Au of 2.7 days (decay constant is
}(h$\ Au of 2.7 days (decay constant is
h j̀hhh!NhNubh)}(h:math:`\lambda`h]h/\lambda}(hhh j!ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhhh j̀ubh/
=2.97×10 }(h
\ =2.97×10\ h j̀hhh!NhNubj")}(h :sup:`-6`h]h/-6}(hhh j4ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj"h j̀ubh/ /s).}(h /s).h j̀hhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jhhubh)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hequation-monaco-24uhh
h jhhh!h"hNubj)}(h7A = RV\left( 1 - e^{- \lambda T} \right)e^{- \lambda t}h]h/7A = RV\left( 1 - e^{- \lambda T} \right)e^{- \lambda t}}(hhh jWubah}(h]jVah]h]h]h]docnamejnumberKlabel Monaco-24nowrapjjuhjh!h"hMh jhhj}j}jVjMsubh)}(h.. _fig8-28:h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hfig8-28uhh
hMh jhhh!h"ubj)}(hhh](j)}(hn.. figure:: figs/Monaco/8-28.png
:align: center
:width: 600
Idealized geometry for a neutron howitzer.
h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]width600urifigs/Monaco/8-28.pngj.}j0jsuhjh jwh!h"hMubj2)}(h*Idealized geometry for a neutron howitzer.h]h/*Idealized geometry for a neutron howitzer.}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj1h!h"hMh jwubeh}(h](id53jveh]h]fig8-28ah]h]jicenteruhjhMh jhhh!h"j}jjlsj}jvjlsubh$)}(hhh](h))}(h
Input fileh]h/
Input file}(hjh jhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h jhhh!h"hMubh;)}(hThe following input file represents the simple model of a neutron
howitzer used for a gold foil activation experiment. The file
``monaco.howitzer.inp`` is located in the SCALE ``samples\input`` directory.
CSAS-MG is used to generate the cross sections.h](h/The following input file represents the simple model of a neutron
howitzer used for a gold foil activation experiment. The file
}(hThe following input file represents the simple model of a neutron
howitzer used for a gold foil activation experiment. The file
h jhhh!NhNubj
)}(h``monaco.howitzer.inp``h]h/monaco.howitzer.inp}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubh/ is located in the SCALE }(h is located in the SCALE h jhhh!NhNubj
)}(h``samples\input``h]h/
samples\input}(hhh jρubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubh/; directory.
CSAS-MG is used to generate the cross sections.}(h; directory.
CSAS-MG is used to generate the cross sections.h jhhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jhhubj)}(hXr'===============================================================================
' Generate the Cross Sections
'===============================================================================
=csas-mg
Materials for Monaco/MAVRIC Training - Exercise Problem 1.
v7-27n19g
read composition
h2o 1 1.0 293.0 end
plexiglass 2 1.0 293.0 end
Au 3 1.0 293.0 end
end composition
end
'===============================================================================
' Monaco functional module and title
'===============================================================================
=monaco
Monaco/MAVRIC Training - Exercise Problem 1. Neutron Howitzer
'-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
' Cross Section Information
'-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
read crossSections
ampxFileUnit=4
mixture 1
element 1001 6.675146E-02
element 8016 3.337573E-02
end mixture
mixture 2
element 1001 5.678730E-02
element 6000 3.549206E-02
element 8016 1.419682E-02
end mixture
mixture 3
element 79197 5.772470E-02
end mixture
end crossSections
'-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
' Geometry Block - SCALE standard geometry package (SGGP)
'-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
read geometry
global unit 1
cylinder 1 30 35 -35
cylinder 2 28 33 -33
xcylinder 3 2 30 10
xcylinder 4 2 10 5
cuboid 11 7.501 7.500 0.5 -0.5 0.5 -0.5
media 1 1 2 -3 -4
media 2 1 1 -2 -3
media 2 1 3
media 0 1 4 -11
com="gold foil"
media 3 1 11 vol=0.001
boundary 4
end geometry
'-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
' Definitions Block
'-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
read definitions
response 1
title="gold macro"
mat=3 ZAID=79197 MT=102 macro
makeChart
end response
distribution 1
title="Pu-Be Source Energy Spectra - from Knoll (Anderson & Neff)"
abscissa 11.0E+06 10.5E+06 10.0E+06 9.5E+06 9.0E+06
8.5E+06 8.0E+06 7.5E+06 7.0E+06 6.5E+06
6.0E+06 5.5E+06 5.0E+06 4.5E+06 4.0E+06
3.5E+06 3.0E+06 2.5E+06 2.0E+06 1.5E+06
1.0E+06 0.5E+06 0.0E+06 end
truePDF 2.74935E-03 7.94257E-03 1.38995E-02 8.70628E-03 1.40522E-02
3.37559E-02 4.13930E-02 3.54361E-02 4.12403E-02 2.93264E-02
3.89491E-02 5.97220E-02 6.76646E-02 6.56789E-02 6.41515E-02
8.11059E-02 6.00275E-02 5.59035E-02 4.78082E-02 5.78891E-02
8.20223E-02 9.05758E-02 end
runSampleTest
end distribution
end definitions
'-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
' Sources Block
'-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
read sources
src 1
neutrons strength=1.377E+07
cuboid 0 0 0 0 0 0
eDistributionID=1
end src
end sources
'-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
' Tallies Block
'-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
read tallies
regionTally 1
neutron
unit=1 region=5
responseID=1
end regionTally
end tallies
'-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
' Parameters Block
'-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
read parameters
randomSeed= 8650005740006085
perBatch=47000 batches=10
neutrons noPhotons
fissionMult=0 secondaryMult=0
end parameters
end data
endh]h/Xr'===============================================================================
' Generate the Cross Sections
'===============================================================================
=csas-mg
Materials for Monaco/MAVRIC Training - Exercise Problem 1.
v7-27n19g
read composition
h2o 1 1.0 293.0 end
plexiglass 2 1.0 293.0 end
Au 3 1.0 293.0 end
end composition
end
'===============================================================================
' Monaco functional module and title
'===============================================================================
=monaco
Monaco/MAVRIC Training - Exercise Problem 1. Neutron Howitzer
'-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
' Cross Section Information
'-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
read crossSections
ampxFileUnit=4
mixture 1
element 1001 6.675146E-02
element 8016 3.337573E-02
end mixture
mixture 2
element 1001 5.678730E-02
element 6000 3.549206E-02
element 8016 1.419682E-02
end mixture
mixture 3
element 79197 5.772470E-02
end mixture
end crossSections
'-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
' Geometry Block - SCALE standard geometry package (SGGP)
'-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
read geometry
global unit 1
cylinder 1 30 35 -35
cylinder 2 28 33 -33
xcylinder 3 2 30 10
xcylinder 4 2 10 5
cuboid 11 7.501 7.500 0.5 -0.5 0.5 -0.5
media 1 1 2 -3 -4
media 2 1 1 -2 -3
media 2 1 3
media 0 1 4 -11
com="gold foil"
media 3 1 11 vol=0.001
boundary 4
end geometry
'-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
' Definitions Block
'-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
read definitions
response 1
title="gold macro"
mat=3 ZAID=79197 MT=102 macro
makeChart
end response
distribution 1
title="Pu-Be Source Energy Spectra - from Knoll (Anderson & Neff)"
abscissa 11.0E+06 10.5E+06 10.0E+06 9.5E+06 9.0E+06
8.5E+06 8.0E+06 7.5E+06 7.0E+06 6.5E+06
6.0E+06 5.5E+06 5.0E+06 4.5E+06 4.0E+06
3.5E+06 3.0E+06 2.5E+06 2.0E+06 1.5E+06
1.0E+06 0.5E+06 0.0E+06 end
truePDF 2.74935E-03 7.94257E-03 1.38995E-02 8.70628E-03 1.40522E-02
3.37559E-02 4.13930E-02 3.54361E-02 4.12403E-02 2.93264E-02
3.89491E-02 5.97220E-02 6.76646E-02 6.56789E-02 6.41515E-02
8.11059E-02 6.00275E-02 5.59035E-02 4.78082E-02 5.78891E-02
8.20223E-02 9.05758E-02 end
runSampleTest
end distribution
end definitions
'-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
' Sources Block
'-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
read sources
src 1
neutrons strength=1.377E+07
cuboid 0 0 0 0 0 0
eDistributionID=1
end src
end sources
'-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
' Tallies Block
'-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
read tallies
regionTally 1
neutron
unit=1 region=5
responseID=1
end regionTally
end tallies
'-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
' Parameters Block
'-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
read parameters
randomSeed= 8650005740006085
perBatch=47000 batches=10
neutrons noPhotons
fissionMult=0 secondaryMult=0
end parameters
end data
end}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjuhjh!h"hMh jhhubeh}(h]
input-fileah]h]h]
input fileah]uhh#h jhhh!h"hMjKubh$)}(hhh](h))}(hOutputh]h/Output}(hjh jhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h jhhh!h"hMubh;)}(h2The main text output file results are reported as:h]h/2The main text output file results are reported as:}(hjh jhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jhhubj)}(hXPNeutron Region Tally 1.
average standard relat FOM stat checks
tally/quantity value deviation uncert (/min) 1 2 3 4 5 6
------------------ ----------- ----------- ------- -------- -----------
total flux (tl) 8.59999E+04 2.64821E+03 0.03079 9.70E+01 X - X - X -
total flux (cd) 1.23288E+05 8.52974E+04 0.69186 1.92E-01 - - - - - -
response 1 2.66771E+05 1.12525E+04 0.04218 5.17E+01 - - X X X –
------------------ ----------- ----------- ------- -------- -----------h]h/XPNeutron Region Tally 1.
average standard relat FOM stat checks
tally/quantity value deviation uncert (/min) 1 2 3 4 5 6
------------------ ----------- ----------- ------- -------- -----------
total flux (tl) 8.59999E+04 2.64821E+03 0.03079 9.70E+01 X - X - X -
total flux (cd) 1.23288E+05 8.52974E+04 0.69186 1.92E-01 - - - - - -
response 1 2.66771E+05 1.12525E+04 0.04218 5.17E+01 - - X X X –
------------------ ----------- ----------- ------- -------- -----------}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjuhjh!h"hMh jhhubh;)}(hXAIn addition to the main output file, the diagnostics from the
definitions block are shown in :numref:`fig8-29` and :numref:`fig8-30` The final value for the activation rate
density *R* is 2.65×10\ :sup:`5` /cm:sup:`3`/sec. Note how the track
length tally performs better than the collision density estimate for
this thin foil region. But also note that after ten minutes, not all of
the statistical checks are converged. Running this problem for longer
times (even up to 10 hours) does not make all of the tests pass. Due to
the very thin width of the of the tally region, most track-lengths
across are very small but occasionally a very long track-length is
recorded. This rare but high-value score tends to upset the convergence
metrics. A tally region over a larger, more cuboid-like volume would
make for a better behaved tally.h](h/]In addition to the main output file, the diagnostics from the
definitions block are shown in }(h]In addition to the main output file, the diagnostics from the
definitions block are shown in h j+hhh!NhNubj)}(h:numref:`fig8-29`h]j
)}(hj6h]h/fig8-29}(hhh j8ubah}(h]h](jstd
std-numrefeh]h]h]uhjh j4ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]refdocj refdomainjBreftypenumrefrefexplicitrefwarnj*fig8-29uhjh!h"hM%h j+ubh/ and }(h and h j+hhh!NhNubj)}(h:numref:`fig8-30`h]j
)}(hj[h]h/fig8-30}(hhh j]ubah}(h]h](jstd
std-numrefeh]h]h]uhjh jYubah}(h]h]h]h]h]refdocj refdomainjgreftypenumrefrefexplicitrefwarnj*fig8-30uhjh!h"hM%h j+ubh/1 The final value for the activation rate
density }(h1 The final value for the activation rate
density h j+hhh!NhNubhA)}(h*R*h]h/R}(hhh j~ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h j+ubh/ is 2.65×10 }(h is 2.65×10\ h j+hhh!NhNubj")}(h:sup:`5`h]h/5}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj"h j+ubh/ /cm:sup:}(h /cm:sup:h j+hhh!NhNubh title_reference)}(h`3`h]h/3}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j+ubh/Xg/sec. Note how the track
length tally performs better than the collision density estimate for
this thin foil region. But also note that after ten minutes, not all of
the statistical checks are converged. Running this problem for longer
times (even up to 10 hours) does not make all of the tests pass. Due to
the very thin width of the of the tally region, most track-lengths
across are very small but occasionally a very long track-length is
recorded. This rare but high-value score tends to upset the convergence
metrics. A tally region over a larger, more cuboid-like volume would
make for a better behaved tally.}(hXg/sec. Note how the track
length tally performs better than the collision density estimate for
this thin foil region. But also note that after ten minutes, not all of
the statistical checks are converged. Running this problem for longer
times (even up to 10 hours) does not make all of the tests pass. Due to
the very thin width of the of the tally region, most track-lengths
across are very small but occasionally a very long track-length is
recorded. This rare but high-value score tends to upset the convergence
metrics. A tally region over a larger, more cuboid-like volume would
make for a better behaved tally.h j+hhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM%h jhhubh)}(h.. _fig8-29:h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hfig8-29uhh
hM2h jhhh!h"ubj)}(hhh](j)}(hA.. figure:: figs/Monaco/8-29.png
:align: center
Response 1.
h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]urifigs/Monaco/8-29.pngj.}j0jsuhjh jʂh!h"hM6ubj2)}(hResponse 1.h]h/Response 1.}(hj܂h jڂubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj1h!h"hM6h jʂubeh}(h](id54jɂeh]h]fig8-29ah]h]jicenteruhjhM6h jhhh!h"j}jjsj}jɂjsubh)}(h.. _fig8-30:h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hfig8-30uhh
hM8h jhhh!h"ubj)}(hhh](j)}(hE.. figure:: figs/Monaco/8-30.png
:align: center
Distribution 1.
h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]urifigs/Monaco/8-30.pngj.}j0jsuhjh jh!h"hM<ubj2)}(hDistribution 1.h]h/Distribution 1.}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj1h!h"hM<h jubeh}(h](id55jeh]h]fig8-30ah]h]jicenteruhjhM<h jhhh!h"j}j!jsj}jjsubeh}(h]id14ah]h]h]outputah]uhh#h jhhh!h"hMjKubeh}(h]'activation-rate-from-a-neutron-howitzerah]h]'activation rate from a neutron howitzerah]h]uhh#h jbhhh!h"hM^ubh$)}(hhh](h))}(hGraphite shielding measurementsh]h/Graphite shielding measurements}(hj<h j:hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h j7hhh!h"hM?ubh;)}(hXK. Ueki of the Nuclear Technology Division, Ship Research Division in
Japan performed many simple studies on a variety of shielding materials
layered in different combinations. He and his colleagues used both
neutron (:sup:`252`\ Cf) and photon (:sup:`60`\ Co) sources to
investigate the shielding effectiveness of steel, graphite, and many
hydrogen-containing materials as single shields or in combinations.h](h/K. Ueki of the Nuclear Technology Division, Ship Research Division in
Japan performed many simple studies on a variety of shielding materials
layered in different combinations. He and his colleagues used both
neutron (}(hK. Ueki of the Nuclear Technology Division, Ship Research Division in
Japan performed many simple studies on a variety of shielding materials
layered in different combinations. He and his colleagues used both
neutron (h jHhhh!NhNubj")}(h
:sup:`252`h]h/252}(hhh jQubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj"h jHubh/ Cf) and photon (}(h\ Cf) and photon (h jHhhh!NhNubj")}(h :sup:`60`h]h/60}(hhh jdubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj"h jHubh/ Co) sources to
investigate the shielding effectiveness of steel, graphite, and many
hydrogen-containing materials as single shields or in combinations.}(h\ Co) sources to
investigate the shielding effectiveness of steel, graphite, and many
hydrogen-containing materials as single shields or in combinations.h jHhhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMAh j7hhubh;)}(hXFOne such series of measurements was for pure graphite :cite:`ueki_neutron_1992` A
:sup:`252`\ Cf neutron source was placed in the center of a 50 cm cube
of paraffin which had a 45° cone cut-out. A neutron meter was placed
110 cm from the source. Sheets of material, in 5×80×80 cm slabs, were
placed between the source and detector, with the detector side of the
shield always fixed at 90 cm from the source. The shield thickness was
increased on the source side of the shield. His results (read from a
plot) for different thicknesses of graphite are shown in :numref:`tab8-24`.h](h/6One such series of measurements was for pure graphite }(h6One such series of measurements was for pure graphite h j}hhh!NhNubj)}(hueki_neutron_1992h]j)}(hjh]h/[ueki_neutron_1992]}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubah}(h]id15ah]jah]h]h] refdomainjreftypej reftargetjrefwarnsupport_smartquotesuhjh!h"hMHh j}hhubh/ A
}(h A
h j}hhh!NhNubj")}(h
:sup:`252`h]h/252}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj"h j}ubh/X Cf neutron source was placed in the center of a 50 cm cube
of paraffin which had a 45° cone cut-out. A neutron meter was placed
110 cm from the source. Sheets of material, in 5×80×80 cm slabs, were
placed between the source and detector, with the detector side of the
shield always fixed at 90 cm from the source. The shield thickness was
increased on the source side of the shield. His results (read from a
plot) for different thicknesses of graphite are shown in }(hX\ Cf neutron source was placed in the center of a 50 cm cube
of paraffin which had a 45° cone cut-out. A neutron meter was placed
110 cm from the source. Sheets of material, in 5×80×80 cm slabs, were
placed between the source and detector, with the detector side of the
shield always fixed at 90 cm from the source. The shield thickness was
increased on the source side of the shield. His results (read from a
plot) for different thicknesses of graphite are shown in h j}hhh!NhNubj)}(h:numref:`tab8-24`h]j
)}(hjh]h/tab8-24}(hhh jubah}(h]h](jstd
std-numrefeh]h]h]uhjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]refdocj refdomainjɃreftypenumrefrefexplicitrefwarnj*tab8-24uhjh!h"hMHh j}ubh/.}(hjh j}hhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMHh j7hhubh)}(h.. _tab8-24:h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]htab8-24uhh
hMQh j7hhh!h"ubj)}(hhh](h))}(hUeki’s experimental resultsh]h/Ueki’s experimental results}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h!h"hMRh jubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]colwidthK
uhjh jubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]colwidthKuhjh jubj=)}(hhh](j)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h**Thickness**
**(cm)**h](j)}(h
**Thickness**h]h/ Thickness}(hhh j%ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j!ubh/
}(h
h j!ubj)}(h**(cm)**h]h/(cm)}(hhh j8ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j!ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMVh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh](h;)}(h**Dose equivalent**h]j)}(hjWh]h/Dose equivalent}(hhh jYubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jUubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMVh jRubh;)}(h**attenuation**h]j)}(hjnh]h/attenuation}(hhh jpubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jlubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMXh jRubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h2h]h/2}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMZh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h0.828810h]h/0.828810}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMZh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h5h]h/5}(hj΄h j̄ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM\h jɄubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jƄubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h0.721721h]h/0.721721}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM\h jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jƄubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h10h]h/10}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM^h jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h0.526054h]h/0.526054}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM^h jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h15h]h/15}(hj<h j:ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM`h j7ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j4ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h0.364949h]h/0.364949}(hjSh jQubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM`h jNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j4ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h20h]h/20}(hjsh jqubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMbh jnubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jkubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h0.253182h]h/0.253182}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMbh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jkubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h25h]h/25}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMdh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h0.170514h]h/0.170514}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMdh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h30h]h/30}(hjh j߅ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMfh j܅ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jمubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h0.112591h]h/0.112591}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMfh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jمubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h35h]h/35}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h0.074181h]h/0.074181}(hj/h j-ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMhh j*ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj<h jubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]colsKuhjh jubeh}(h](id56jeh]h]tab8-24ah]h]jicenteruhjh j7hhh!h"hNj}jYjsj}jjsubh$)}(hhh](h))}(h
Input fileh]h/
Input file}(hjdh jbhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h j_hhh!h"hMmubh;)}(hThe following is a listing of the file monaco.graphite.inp located in
the SCALE samples\input directory. This represents a simple model of
Ueki’s experiment for the 20 cm graphite slab.h]h/The following is a listing of the file monaco.graphite.inp located in
the SCALE samplesinput directory. This represents a simple model of
Ueki’s experiment for the 20 cm graphite slab.}(hThe following is a listing of the file monaco.graphite.inp located in
the SCALE samples\input directory. This represents a simple model of
Ueki’s experiment for the 20 cm graphite slab.h jphhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMoh j_hhubj)}(hX'===============================================================================
' Generate the Cross Sections
'===============================================================================
=csas-mg
Materials for Monaco/MAVRIC Training - Exercise Problem 2.
v7-200n47g
read composition
para(h2o) 1 1.0 293.0 end
carbon 2 den=1.7 1.0 300.0 end
activities 99 1.0 293.0 end
end composition
end
'===============================================================================
' Monaco functional module and title
'===============================================================================
=monaco
Monaco/MAVRIC Training - Exercise Problem 2. Graphite Shielding Measurements
'-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
' Cross Section Information
'-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
read crossSections
ampxFileUnit=4
mixture 1
element 1001 7.991204E-02
element 6000 3.841925E-02
end mixture
mixture 2
element 6000 8.523484E-02
end mixtureend crossSections
'-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
' Geometry Block - SCALE standard geometry package (SGGP)
'-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
read geometry
global unit 1
cuboid 1 25.0 -25.0 25.0 -25.0 25.0 -25.0
cone 2 10.35948 25.01 0.0 0.0 rotate a1=-90 a2=-90 a3=0
cuboid 3 90.0 70.0 40.0 -40.0 40.0 -40.0
cuboid 99 120.0 -30.0 50.0 -50.0 50.0 -50.0
media 1 1 1 -2
media 0 1 2
media 2 1 3
media 0 1 99 -1 -2 -3
boundary 99
end geometry
'-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
' Geometry Plots
'-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
read plot
scr=yes
ttl="slice through plane of z=0, whole geometry"
pic=mixture
xul=-30.0 yul=50.0 zul=0.0
xlr=120.0 ylr=-50.0 zlr=0.0
uax=1.0 vax=0.0 wax=0.0
udn=0.0 vdn=-1.0 wdn=0.0
nax=640
end
ttl="slice through plane of y=0, through just the paraffin block"
pic=mixture
xul=-30.0 yul=0.0 zul=50.0
xlr=30.0 ylr=0.0 zlr=-50.0
uax=1.0 vax=0.0 wax=0.0
udn=0.0 vdn=0.0 wdn=-1.0
nax=640
end
ttl="slice through plane of x=0, through just the paraffin block"
pic=mixture
xul=0.0 yul=-50.0 zul=50.0
xlr=0.0 ylr=50.0 zlr=-50.0
uax=0.0 vax=1.0 wax=0.0
udn=0.0 vdn=0.0 wdn=-1.0
nax=640
end
end plot
'-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
' Definitions Block
'-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
read definitions
location 1
position 110 0 0
end location
response 5
title="ANSI standard (1977) neutron flux-to-dose-rate factors"
specialDose=9029
end response
distribution 1
title="Cf-252 neutrons, Watt spectrum a=1.025 MeV and b=2.926/MeV"
special="wattSpectrum"
parameters 1.025 2.926 end
end distribution
end definitions
'-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
' Sources Block
'-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
read sources
src 1
title="Cf-252 neutrons"
neutrons strength=4.05E+07
cuboid 0.01 0.01 0 0 0 0
eDistributionID=1
end src
end sources
'-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
' Tallies Block
'-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
read tallies
pointDetector 1
title="center of detector"
neutron
locationID=1
responseID=5
end pointDetector
end tallies
'-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
' Parameters Block
'-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
read parameters
randomSeed=00003ecd7b4e3e8b
perBatch=9500 batches=20
neutrons noPhotons
fissionMult=0 secondaryMult=0
end parameters
end data
endh]h/X'===============================================================================
' Generate the Cross Sections
'===============================================================================
=csas-mg
Materials for Monaco/MAVRIC Training - Exercise Problem 2.
v7-200n47g
read composition
para(h2o) 1 1.0 293.0 end
carbon 2 den=1.7 1.0 300.0 end
activities 99 1.0 293.0 end
end composition
end
'===============================================================================
' Monaco functional module and title
'===============================================================================
=monaco
Monaco/MAVRIC Training - Exercise Problem 2. Graphite Shielding Measurements
'-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
' Cross Section Information
'-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
read crossSections
ampxFileUnit=4
mixture 1
element 1001 7.991204E-02
element 6000 3.841925E-02
end mixture
mixture 2
element 6000 8.523484E-02
end mixtureend crossSections
'-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
' Geometry Block - SCALE standard geometry package (SGGP)
'-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
read geometry
global unit 1
cuboid 1 25.0 -25.0 25.0 -25.0 25.0 -25.0
cone 2 10.35948 25.01 0.0 0.0 rotate a1=-90 a2=-90 a3=0
cuboid 3 90.0 70.0 40.0 -40.0 40.0 -40.0
cuboid 99 120.0 -30.0 50.0 -50.0 50.0 -50.0
media 1 1 1 -2
media 0 1 2
media 2 1 3
media 0 1 99 -1 -2 -3
boundary 99
end geometry
'-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
' Geometry Plots
'-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
read plot
scr=yes
ttl="slice through plane of z=0, whole geometry"
pic=mixture
xul=-30.0 yul=50.0 zul=0.0
xlr=120.0 ylr=-50.0 zlr=0.0
uax=1.0 vax=0.0 wax=0.0
udn=0.0 vdn=-1.0 wdn=0.0
nax=640
end
ttl="slice through plane of y=0, through just the paraffin block"
pic=mixture
xul=-30.0 yul=0.0 zul=50.0
xlr=30.0 ylr=0.0 zlr=-50.0
uax=1.0 vax=0.0 wax=0.0
udn=0.0 vdn=0.0 wdn=-1.0
nax=640
end
ttl="slice through plane of x=0, through just the paraffin block"
pic=mixture
xul=0.0 yul=-50.0 zul=50.0
xlr=0.0 ylr=50.0 zlr=-50.0
uax=0.0 vax=1.0 wax=0.0
udn=0.0 vdn=0.0 wdn=-1.0
nax=640
end
end plot
'-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
' Definitions Block
'-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
read definitions
location 1
position 110 0 0
end location
response 5
title="ANSI standard (1977) neutron flux-to-dose-rate factors"
specialDose=9029
end response
distribution 1
title="Cf-252 neutrons, Watt spectrum a=1.025 MeV and b=2.926/MeV"
special="wattSpectrum"
parameters 1.025 2.926 end
end distribution
end definitions
'-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
' Sources Block
'-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
read sources
src 1
title="Cf-252 neutrons"
neutrons strength=4.05E+07
cuboid 0.01 0.01 0 0 0 0
eDistributionID=1
end src
end sources
'-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
' Tallies Block
'-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
read tallies
pointDetector 1
title="center of detector"
neutron
locationID=1
responseID=5
end pointDetector
end tallies
'-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
' Parameters Block
'-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
read parameters
randomSeed=00003ecd7b4e3e8b
perBatch=9500 batches=20
neutrons noPhotons
fissionMult=0 secondaryMult=0
end parameters
end data
end}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjuhjh!h"hMuh j_hhubeh}(h]id16ah]h]h]jah]uhh#h j7hhh!h"hMmjKubh$)}(hhh](h))}(hOutputh]h/Output}(hjh jhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h jhhh!h"hMubh;)}(h:For the 20 cm case, Monaco reports the following results:h]h/:For the 20 cm case, Monaco reports the following results:}(hjh jhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jhhubj)}(hXMNeutron Point Detector 1. center of detector
average standard relat FOM stat checks
tally/quantity value deviation uncert (/min) 1 2 3 4 5 6
------------------ ----------- ----------- ------- -------- -----------
uncollided flux 1.06273E+01 2.56481E-02 0.00241
total flux 2.43530E+02 4.58843E+00 0.01884 1.39E+02 X X X X X X
response 5 1.30398E-02 2.58938E-04 0.01986 1.26E+02 X X X X X X
------------------ ----------- ----------- ------- -------- -----------h]h/XMNeutron Point Detector 1. center of detector
average standard relat FOM stat checks
tally/quantity value deviation uncert (/min) 1 2 3 4 5 6
------------------ ----------- ----------- ------- -------- -----------
uncollided flux 1.06273E+01 2.56481E-02 0.00241
total flux 2.43530E+02 4.58843E+00 0.01884 1.39E+02 X X X X X X
response 5 1.30398E-02 2.58938E-04 0.01986 1.26E+02 X X X X X X
------------------ ----------- ----------- ------- -------- -----------}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjuhjh!h"hMh jhhubh;)}(hPThe plots generated by the “read plots” block are shown in :numref:`fig8-31`h](h/?The plots generated by the “read plots” block are shown in }(h?The plots generated by the “read plots” block are shown in h jhhh!NhNubj)}(h:numref:`fig8-31`h]j
)}(hj̆h]h/fig8-31}(hhh jΆubah}(h]h](jstd
std-numrefeh]h]h]uhjh jʆubah}(h]h]h]h]h]refdocj refdomainj؆reftypenumrefrefexplicitrefwarnj*fig8-31uhjh!h"hMh jubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jhhubh;)}(hXTo compute the attenuation that Ueki measured, this dose rate can be
divided by the dose rate from another Monaco calculation using a slab
thickness of 0 cm—the unattenuated case. Combining the results of nine
Monaco runs (eight different thicknesses and the unattenuated case),
which were allowed to run long enough to achieve 1% uncertainty, gives
the results shown in :numref:`tab8-25`. Note how the runtime of the Monaco
calculation increases with increasing shield thickness.h](h/XvTo compute the attenuation that Ueki measured, this dose rate can be
divided by the dose rate from another Monaco calculation using a slab
thickness of 0 cm—the unattenuated case. Combining the results of nine
Monaco runs (eight different thicknesses and the unattenuated case),
which were allowed to run long enough to achieve 1% uncertainty, gives
the results shown in }(hXvTo compute the attenuation that Ueki measured, this dose rate can be
divided by the dose rate from another Monaco calculation using a slab
thickness of 0 cm—the unattenuated case. Combining the results of nine
Monaco runs (eight different thicknesses and the unattenuated case),
which were allowed to run long enough to achieve 1% uncertainty, gives
the results shown in h jhhh!NhNubj)}(h:numref:`tab8-25`h]j
)}(hjh]h/tab8-25}(hhh jubah}(h]h](jstd
std-numrefeh]h]h]uhjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]refdocj refdomainjreftypenumrefrefexplicitrefwarnj*tab8-25uhjh!h"hMh jubh/\. Note how the runtime of the Monaco
calculation increases with increasing shield thickness.}(h\. Note how the runtime of the Monaco
calculation increases with increasing shield thickness.h jhhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jhhubh)}(h.. _fig8-31:h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hfig8-31uhh
hMh jhhh!h"ubj)}(hhh](j)}(hu.. figure:: figs/Monaco/8-31.png
:align: center
Images (\*.png files) generated with the “read plot” block.
h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]urifigs/Monaco/8-31.pngj.}j0j=suhjh j/h!h"hMubj2)}(h?Images (\*.png files) generated with the “read plot” block.h]h/?Images (*.png files) generated with the “read plot” block.}(h?Images (\*.png files) generated with the “read plot” block.h j?ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj1h!h"hMh j/ubeh}(h](id57j.eh]h]fig8-31ah]h]jicenteruhjhMh jhhh!h"j}jSj$sj}j.j$subh)}(h.. _tab8-25:h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]htab8-25uhh
hMh jhhh!h"ubj)}(hhh](h))}(h:Measured and calculated dose attenuation rate for graphiteh]h/:Measured and calculated dose attenuation rate for graphite}(hjih jgubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h!h"hM h jdubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]colwidthKuhjh juubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]colwidthKuhjh juubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]colwidthK
uhjh juubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]colwidthKuhjh juubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]colwidthK
uhjh juubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]colwidthKuhjh juubj)}(hhh]j)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h
**Thickness**h]j)}(hjh]h/ Thickness}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM$h jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h**Ueki**h]j)}(hj߇h]h/Ueki}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j݇ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM$h jڇubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h
**Monaco**h]j)}(hjh]h/Monaco}(hhh j
ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM$h jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h**C/E**h]j)}(hj1h]h/C/E}(hhh j3ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j/ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM$h j,ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh juubj=)}(hhh](j)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h**(cm)**h]j)}(hjch]h/(cm)}(hhh jeubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jaubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM&h j^ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j[ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h
**et al.**h]j)}(hjh]h/et al.}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM&h j~ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j[ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h**minutes**h]j)}(hjh]h/minutes}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM&h jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j[ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h **value**h]j)}(hjÈh]h/value}(hhh jňubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM&h jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j[ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h**rel unc**h]j)}(hjh]h/rel unc}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM&h jވubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j[ubj)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j[ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jXubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(hjh]h/2}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM(h jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j
ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h0.8288h]h/0.8288}(hj+h j)ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM(h j&ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j
ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h10h]h/10}(hjBh j@ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM(h j=ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j
ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h0.8679h]h/0.8679}(hjYh jWubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM(h jTubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j
ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h0.0072h]h/0.0072}(hjph jnubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM(h jkubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j
ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h1.05h]h/1.05}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM(h jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j
ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jXubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(hj΄h]h/5}(hj΄h jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM*h jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h0.7217h]h/0.7217}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM*h jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h20h]h/20}(hjԉh j҉ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM*h jωubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h0.7383h]h/0.7383}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM*h jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h0.0086h]h/0.0086}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM*h jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h1.02h]h/1.02}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM*h jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jXubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h10h]h/10}(hj9h j7ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM,h j4ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j1ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h0.5261h]h/0.5261}(hjPh jNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM,h jKubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j1ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h40h]h/40}(hjgh jeubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM,h jbubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j1ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h0.5387h]h/0.5387}(hj~h j|ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM,h jyubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j1ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h0.0086h]h/0.0086}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM,h jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j1ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h1.02h]h/1.02}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM,h jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j1ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jXubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h15h]h/15}(hj̊h jʊubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM.h jǊubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jĊubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h0.3649h]h/0.3649}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM.h jފubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jĊubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h60h]h/60}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM.h jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jĊubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h0.3837h]h/0.3837}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM.h jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jĊubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h0.0089h]h/0.0089}(hj(h j&ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM.h j#ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jĊubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h1.05h]h/1.05}(hj?h j=ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM.h j:ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jĊubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jXubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h20h]h/20}(hj_h j]ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM0h jZubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jWubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h0.2532h]h/0.2532}(hjvh jtubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM0h jqubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jWubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h20h]h/20}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM0h jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jWubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h0.2593h]h/0.2593}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM0h jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jWubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h0.0199h]h/0.0199}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM0h jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jWubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h1.02h]h/1.02}(hjҋh jЋubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM0h j͋ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jWubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jXubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h25h]h/25}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM2h jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h0.1705h]h/0.1705}(hj h jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM2h jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h120h]h/120}(hj h jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM2h jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h0.1774h]h/0.1774}(hj7h j5ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM2h j2ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h0.0095h]h/0.0095}(hjNh jLubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM2h jIubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h1.04h]h/1.04}(hjeh jcubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM2h j`ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jXubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h30h]h/30}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM4h jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j}ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h0.1126h]h/0.1126}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM4h jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j}ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h180h]h/180}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM4h jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j}ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h0.1206h]h/0.1206}(hjʌh jȌubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM4h jŌubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j}ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h0.0093h]h/0.0093}(hjh jߌubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM4h j܌ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j}ubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h1.07h]h/1.07}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM4h jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh j}ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jXubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h;)}(h35h]h/35}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM6h jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h0.0742h]h/0.0742}(hj/h j-ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM6h j*ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h300h]h/300}(hjFh jDubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM6h jAubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h0.0806h]h/0.0806}(hj]h j[ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM6h jXubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h0.0088h]h/0.0088}(hjth jrubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM6h joubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubj)}(hhh]h;)}(h1.09h]h/1.09}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM6h jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jXubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj<h juubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]colsKuhjh jdubeh}(h](id58jceh]h]tab8-25ah]h]jicenteruhjh jhhh!h"hNj}jjYsj}jcjYsubh;)}(hAdding a mesh tallyh]h/Adding a mesh tally}(hjh jhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hM9h jhhubj)}(hX#read definitions
…
gridGeometry 7
title="large meshes in paraffin, 5 cm mesh for shield thicknesses"
xLinear 5 -25 25
xLinear 12 30 90
xplanes 100 110 120 -30 end
yplanes -50 -40 40 50 end
yLinear 7 -35 35
zplanes -50 -40 40 50 end
zLinear 7 -35 35
end gridGeometry
end definitions
read tallies
…
meshTally 1
title="example mesh tally"
neutron
gridGeometryID=7
responseID=5
noGroupFluxes
end meshTally
end talliesh]h/X#read definitions
…
gridGeometry 7
title="large meshes in paraffin, 5 cm mesh for shield thicknesses"
xLinear 5 -25 25
xLinear 12 30 90
xplanes 100 110 120 -30 end
yplanes -50 -40 40 50 end
yLinear 7 -35 35
zplanes -50 -40 40 50 end
zLinear 7 -35 35
end gridGeometry
end definitions
read tallies
…
meshTally 1
title="example mesh tally"
neutron
gridGeometryID=7
responseID=5
noGroupFluxes
end meshTally
end tallies}(hhh jɍubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjuhjh!h"hM=h jhhubh;)}(hsand viewing the resulting \*.3dmap file with the Mesh File Viewer can produce the image shown in :numref:`fig8-32`.h](h/aand viewing the resulting *.3dmap file with the Mesh File Viewer can produce the image shown in }(haand viewing the resulting \*.3dmap file with the Mesh File Viewer can produce the image shown in h jhhh!NhNubj)}(h:numref:`fig8-32`h]j
)}(hjh]h/fig8-32}(hhh jubah}(h]h](jstd
std-numrefeh]h]h]uhjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]refdocj refdomainjreftypenumrefrefexplicitrefwarnj*fig8-32uhjh!h"hMWh jubh/.}(hjh jhhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMWh jhhubh)}(h.. _fig8-32:h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hfig8-32uhh
hMYh jhhh!h"ubj)}(hhh](j)}(hg.. figure:: figs/Monaco/fig8-32.png
:align: center
Mesh tally showing neutron dose rate (rem/hr)
h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]urifigs/Monaco/fig8-32.pngj.}j0j#suhjh jh!h"hM]ubj2)}(h-Mesh tally showing neutron dose rate (rem/hr)h]h/-Mesh tally showing neutron dose rate (rem/hr)}(hj'h j%ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj1h!h"hM]h jubeh}(h](id59jeh]h]fig8-32ah]h]jicenteruhjhM]h jhhh!h"j}j8j
sj}jj
subeh}(h]id17ah]h]h]outputah]uhh#h j7hhh!h"hMjKubeh}(h]graphite-shielding-measurementsah]h]graphite shielding measurementsah]h]uhh#h jbhhh!h"hM?ubh$)}(hhh](h))}(h0Simple shielding demonstration with line spectrah]h/0Simple shielding demonstration with line spectra}(hjSh jQhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h jNhhh!h"hMaubh;)}(hXUSources containing line data are difficult to represent in multigroup.
Comparing real measurements of line data to multigroup calculations is
also difficult. This sample problem is not the simulation of a real
measurement but is just a simple demonstration of the differences
between continuous-energy simulation and the multigroup approach.h]h/XUSources containing line data are difficult to represent in multigroup.
Comparing real measurements of line data to multigroup calculations is
also difficult. This sample problem is not the simulation of a real
measurement but is just a simple demonstration of the differences
between continuous-energy simulation and the multigroup approach.}(hjah j_hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMch jNhhubh;)}(hXMConsider an isotropic cobalt-60 source on one side of a slab of tungsten
(5 cm thick) and the goal is to compute the photon flux and dose on the
other side of the slab. Since the continuous-energy library does not
have a built-in structure that could be used by tallies, the user needs
to supply one (otherwise tally information is recorded in one bin
covering the entire range of energy). The user can construct an energy
boundaries object in the definitions block that is uniformly spaced,
logarithmically spaced, based on one of the multigroup libraries or any
combination of the above.h]h/XMConsider an isotropic cobalt-60 source on one side of a slab of tungsten
(5 cm thick) and the goal is to compute the photon flux and dose on the
other side of the slab. Since the continuous-energy library does not
have a built-in structure that could be used by tallies, the user needs
to supply one (otherwise tally information is recorded in one bin
covering the entire range of energy). The user can construct an energy
boundaries object in the definitions block that is uniformly spaced,
logarithmically spaced, based on one of the multigroup libraries or any
combination of the above.}(hjoh jmhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMih jNhhubh$)}(hhh](h))}(h
Input fileh]h/
Input file}(hjh j~hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h j{hhh!h"hMtubh;)}(hThe sample problem ``monaco.wSlab.inp``, is located in the ``samples\input``
directory. The materials input consist just of tungsten, in its natural
isotopic abundances.h](h/The sample problem }(hThe sample problem h jhhh!NhNubj
)}(h``monaco.wSlab.inp``h]h/monaco.wSlab.inp}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubh/, is located in the }(h, is located in the h jhhh!NhNubj
)}(h``samples\input``h]h/
samples\input}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubh/]
directory. The materials input consist just of tungsten, in its natural
isotopic abundances.}(h]
directory. The materials input consist just of tungsten, in its natural
isotopic abundances.h jhhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMvh j{hhubj)}(hread crossSections
ceLibrary="ce_v7.1_endf.xml"
mixture 1
element 74182 1.531781E-02
element 74183 8.202875E-03
element 74184 1.806470E-02
element 74186 1.671717E-02
end mixture
end crossSectionsh]h/read crossSections
ceLibrary="ce_v7.1_endf.xml"
mixture 1
element 74182 1.531781E-02
element 74183 8.202875E-03
element 74184 1.806470E-02
element 74186 1.671717E-02
end mixture
end crossSections}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjuhjh!h"hM|h j{hhubh;)}(hbThe geometry is a simple slab of tungsten, with a small air region on one side for a region tally.h]h/bThe geometry is a simple slab of tungsten, with a small air region on one side for a region tally.}(hjюh jώhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j{hhubj)}(hXread geometry
global unit 1
cuboid 10 2.5 -2.5 25.0 -25.0
25.0 -25.0
cuboid 20 6.0 4.0 1.0 -1.0
1.0 -1.0
cuboid 30 10.0 -10.0 25.0 -25.0
25.0 -25.0
media 1 1 10
media 0 1 20 vol=8.0
media 0 1 30 -10 -20
boundary 30
end geometryh]h/Xread geometry
global unit 1
cuboid 10 2.5 -2.5 25.0 -25.0
25.0 -25.0
cuboid 20 6.0 4.0 1.0 -1.0
1.0 -1.0
cuboid 30 10.0 -10.0 25.0 -25.0
25.0 -25.0
media 1 1 10
media 0 1 20 vol=8.0
media 0 1 30 -10 -20
boundary 30
end geometry}(hhh jݎubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjuhjh!h"hMh j{hhubh)}(h.. _fig8-33:h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hfig8-33uhh
hMh j{hhh!h"ubj)}(hhh](j)}(h.. figure:: figs/Monaco/8-33.png
:align: center
:width: 50 %
Simple slab geometry with a source (S) on the left and a tally region (T) on the right.
h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]width50%urifigs/Monaco/8-33.pngj.}j0jsuhjh jh!h"hMubj2)}(hWSimple slab geometry with a source (S) on the left and a tally region (T) on the right.h]h/WSimple slab geometry with a source (S) on the left and a tally region (T) on the right.}(hj
h jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj1h!h"hMh jubeh}(h](id60jeh]h]fig8-33ah]h]jicenteruhjhMh j{hhh!h"j}jjsj}jjsubh;)}(hXiIn the definitions block, a location (for a point detector), the photon
dose response function, the Co-60 line spectra and an energy boundaries
structure are all defined. The energyBounds defined here has a base
structure of 30 bins that are 50 keV wide, with three bins that are 2
keV wide at the cobalt line energies and the 511 keV annihilation gamma
energy.h]h/XiIn the definitions block, a location (for a point detector), the photon
dose response function, the Co-60 line spectra and an energy boundaries
structure are all defined. The energyBounds defined here has a base
structure of 30 bins that are 50 keV wide, with three bins that are 2
keV wide at the cobalt line energies and the 511 keV annihilation gamma
energy.}(hj#h j!hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j{hhubj)}(hXTread definitions
location 1
position 5.0 0.0 0.0
end location
response 5
title="ANSI standard (1977) photon flux-to-dose-rate factors"
doseData=9504
end response
distribution 1
title="cobalt-60 gammas/decay"
discrete 347140 826100 1173228 1332492 2158570 2505692 end
truepdf 0.000075 0.000076 0.9985 0.999826 0.000012 0.00000002 end
end distribution
energyBounds 1
linear 30 0.00e6 1.50e6
bounds 0.510e+6 0.512e+6 1.172e6 1.174e6 1.331e6 1.333e6 end
end energyBounds
end definitionsh]h/XTread definitions
location 1
position 5.0 0.0 0.0
end location
response 5
title="ANSI standard (1977) photon flux-to-dose-rate factors"
doseData=9504
end response
distribution 1
title="cobalt-60 gammas/decay"
discrete 347140 826100 1173228 1332492 2158570 2505692 end
truepdf 0.000075 0.000076 0.9985 0.999826 0.000012 0.00000002 end
end distribution
energyBounds 1
linear 30 0.00e6 1.50e6
bounds 0.510e+6 0.512e+6 1.172e6 1.174e6 1.331e6 1.333e6 end
end energyBounds
end definitions}(hhh j/ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjuhjh!h"hMh j{hhubh;)}(hXzThe source is a simple point source 5 cm to the left of the slab.
Because the distribution of cobalt gamma rays was entered as gammas per
decay, the keyword ‘useNormConst’ will set the source strength to be the
total of the energy distribution - about 2 photons/decay. The
‘multiplier’keyword is used to multiply that strength by 37×10\ :sup:`9`
decays/sec to get 1 Ci.h](h/XZThe source is a simple point source 5 cm to the left of the slab.
Because the distribution of cobalt gamma rays was entered as gammas per
decay, the keyword ‘useNormConst’ will set the source strength to be the
total of the energy distribution - about 2 photons/decay. The
‘multiplier’keyword is used to multiply that strength by 37×10 }(hXZThe source is a simple point source 5 cm to the left of the slab.
Because the distribution of cobalt gamma rays was entered as gammas per
decay, the keyword ‘useNormConst’ will set the source strength to be the
total of the energy distribution - about 2 photons/decay. The
‘multiplier’keyword is used to multiply that strength by 37×10\ h j=hhh!NhNubj")}(h:sup:`9`h]h/9}(hhh jFubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj"h j=ubh/
decays/sec to get 1 Ci.}(h
decays/sec to get 1 Ci.h j=hhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j{hhubj)}(hread sources
src 1
title="one Ci of cobalt-60"
useNormConst
multiplier=37e9
sphere 0.0 origin x=-5.0 y=0.0 z=0.0
photons
eDistributionID=1
end src
end sourcesh]h/read sources
src 1
title="one Ci of cobalt-60"
useNormConst
multiplier=37e9
sphere 0.0 origin x=-5.0 y=0.0 z=0.0
photons
eDistributionID=1
end src
end sources}(hhh j_ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjuhjh!h"hMh j{hhubh;)}(hkBoth a region tally and a point detector tally are defined. Parameters are set for a 10 minute calculation.h]h/kBoth a region tally and a point detector tally are defined. Parameters are set for a 10 minute calculation.}(hjoh jmhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh j{hhubj)}(hXread tallies
pointDetector 15
photon
locationID=1
responseID=5
energyBoundsID=1
end pointDetector
regionTally 24
photon
unit=1 region=2
responseID=5
energyBoundsID=1
end regionTally
end tallies
read parameters
randomSeed=00003ecd7b4e3e8b
perBatch=582000 batches=90
noNeutrons photons
fissionMult=0 secondaryMult=0
end parametersh]h/Xread tallies
pointDetector 15
photon
locationID=1
responseID=5
energyBoundsID=1
end pointDetector
regionTally 24
photon
unit=1 region=2
responseID=5
energyBoundsID=1
end regionTally
end tallies
read parameters
randomSeed=00003ecd7b4e3e8b
perBatch=582000 batches=90
noNeutrons photons
fissionMult=0 secondaryMult=0
end parameters}(hhh j{ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]jjuhjh!h"hMh j{hhubeh}(h]id18ah]h]h]
input fileah]uhh#h jNhhh!h"hMtjKubh$)}(hhh](h))}(hOutputh]h/Output}(hjh jhhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h jhhh!h"hMubh;)}(hXResults for the dose rate from this continuous-energy calculation are
shown in :numref:`tab8-26`, along with results from two multigroup
calculations and an MCNP calculation. To simulate the same type of
physics used in the continuous-energy SCALE, the MCNP calculation used a
photon cutoff energy of 0.01 MeV, EMCPF=100 MeV (detailed physics),
IDES=1 (no electrons/no bremsstrahlung), NOCOH=0 (coherent scattering
occurs), ISPN=0 (no photonuclear collisions), and NODOP=1 (no Doppler
energy broadening).h](h/OResults for the dose rate from this continuous-energy calculation are
shown in }(hOResults for the dose rate from this continuous-energy calculation are
shown in h jhhh!NhNubj)}(h:numref:`tab8-26`h]j
)}(hjh]h/tab8-26}(hhh jubah}(h]h](jstd
std-numrefeh]h]h]uhjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]refdocj refdomainjreftypenumrefrefexplicitrefwarnj*tab8-26uhjh!h"hMh jubh/X, along with results from two multigroup
calculations and an MCNP calculation. To simulate the same type of
physics used in the continuous-energy SCALE, the MCNP calculation used a
photon cutoff energy of 0.01 MeV, EMCPF=100 MeV (detailed physics),
IDES=1 (no electrons/no bremsstrahlung), NOCOH=0 (coherent scattering
occurs), ISPN=0 (no photonuclear collisions), and NODOP=1 (no Doppler
energy broadening).}(hX, along with results from two multigroup
calculations and an MCNP calculation. To simulate the same type of
physics used in the continuous-energy SCALE, the MCNP calculation used a
photon cutoff energy of 0.01 MeV, EMCPF=100 MeV (detailed physics),
IDES=1 (no electrons/no bremsstrahlung), NOCOH=0 (coherent scattering
occurs), ISPN=0 (no photonuclear collisions), and NODOP=1 (no Doppler
energy broadening).h jhhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jhhubh;)}(hXrThe results from the SCALE multigroup calculations differ by 20%, due to
how the source and the dose response function are represented. The
19-group structure represents the 1.33 MeV line with the 1.33-1.66 MeV,
so it is expected that the computed dose will be high. With the 47-group
structure, the 1.17 MeV line is represented by the 1-1.2 MeV group (too
low – lower dose will result) and the 1.33 MeV line is represented by
the 1.33-1.44 MeV group (too high – higher dose will result). The
multigroup results are well-converged – just not as accurate as desired.
The continuous-energy results should be more accurate.h]h/XrThe results from the SCALE multigroup calculations differ by 20%, due to
how the source and the dose response function are represented. The
19-group structure represents the 1.33 MeV line with the 1.33-1.66 MeV,
so it is expected that the computed dose will be high. With the 47-group
structure, the 1.17 MeV line is represented by the 1-1.2 MeV group (too
low – lower dose will result) and the 1.33 MeV line is represented by
the 1.33-1.44 MeV group (too high – higher dose will result). The
multigroup results are well-converged – just not as accurate as desired.
The continuous-energy results should be more accurate.}(hj؏h j֏hhh!NhNubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jhhubj)}(hhh](h))}(hPDose rates for the cobalt-60/tungsten problem using different energy treatments.h]h/PDose rates for the cobalt-60/tungsten problem using different energy treatments.}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h!h"hMh jubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]jiKduhjh jubj=)}(hhh]j)}(hhh]j)}(hhh]j)}(h".. image:: figs/Monaco/tab8-26.pngh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]urifigs/Monaco/tab8-26.pngj.}j0jsuhjh jh!h"hKubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj<h jubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]colsKuhjh jubeh}(h]tab8-26ah]h]tab8-26ah]h]jicenterj$70%uhjh jhhh!NhNubh;)}(hX::numref:`fig8-34` and :numref:`fig8-35` show the results of the point detector
and region tally flux as a function of energy, for this problem as well
as two multigroup calculations and an MCNP calculation. Tables M and N
list the flux values of the cobalt lines and the annihilation gamma for
the two tally types.h](j)}(h:numref:`fig8-34`h]j
)}(hj@h]h/fig8-34}(hhh jBubah}(h]h](jstd
std-numrefeh]h]h]uhjh j>ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]refdocj refdomainjLreftypenumrefrefexplicitrefwarnj*fig8-34uhjh!h"hMh j:ubh/ and }(h and h j:hhh!NhNubj)}(h:numref:`fig8-35`h]j
)}(hjeh]h/fig8-35}(hhh jgubah}(h]h](jstd
std-numrefeh]h]h]uhjh jcubah}(h]h]h]h]h]refdocj refdomainjqreftypenumrefrefexplicitrefwarnj*fig8-35uhjh!h"hMh j:ubh/X show the results of the point detector
and region tally flux as a function of energy, for this problem as well
as two multigroup calculations and an MCNP calculation. Tables M and N
list the flux values of the cobalt lines and the annihilation gamma for
the two tally types.}(hX show the results of the point detector
and region tally flux as a function of energy, for this problem as well
as two multigroup calculations and an MCNP calculation. Tables M and N
list the flux values of the cobalt lines and the annihilation gamma for
the two tally types.h j:hhh!NhNubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h!h"hMh jhhubh)}(h.. _fig8-34:h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hfig8-34uhh
hMh jhhh!h"ubj)}(hhh](j)}(h.. figure:: figs/Monaco/8-34.png
:align: center
Point detector fluxes for the cobalt-60/tungsten problem using different energy treatments.
h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]urifigs/Monaco/8-34.pngj.}j0jsuhjh jh!h"hMubj2)}(h[Point detector fluxes for the cobalt-60/tungsten problem using different energy treatments.h]h/[Point detector fluxes for the cobalt-60/tungsten problem using different energy treatments.}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj1h!h"hMh jubeh}(h](id61jeh]h]fig8-34ah]h]jicenteruhjhMh jhhh!h"j}jjsj}jjsubh)}(h.. _fig8-35:h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]hfig8-35uhh
hMh jhhh!h"ubj)}(hhh](j)}(h.. figure:: figs/Monaco/8-35.png
:align: center
Region tally fluxes for the cobalt-60/tungsten problem using different energy treatments.
h]h}(h]h]h]h]h]urifigs/Monaco/8-35.pngj.}j0jېsuhjh j͐h!h"hMubj2)}(hYRegion tally fluxes for the cobalt-60/tungsten problem using different energy treatments.h]h/YRegion tally fluxes for the cobalt-60/tungsten problem using different energy treatments.}(hjߐh jݐubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj1h!h"hMh j͐ubeh}(h](id62j̐eh]h]fig8-35ah]h]jicenteruhjhMh jhhh!h"j}jjsj}j̐jsubj)}(hhh](h))}(hYRegion tally fluxes for the cobalt-60/tungsten problem using different energy treatments.h]h/YRegion tally fluxes for the cobalt-60/tungsten problem using different energy treatments.}(hjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h!h"hMh jubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]jiKduhjh jubj=)}(hhh]j)}(hhh]j)}(hhh]j)}(h".. image:: figs/Monaco/tab8-27.pngh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]urifigs/Monaco/tab8-27.pngj.}j0j'suhjh jh!h"hKubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj<h jubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]colsKuhjh jubeh}(h]tab8-27ah]h]tab8-27ah]h]jicenterj$70%uhjh jhhh!NhNubj)}(hhh](h))}(h'Region tally flux values for the lines.h]h/'Region tally flux values for the lines.}(hjQh jOubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh(h!h"hM$h jLubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]jiKduhjh j]ubj=)}(hhh]j)}(hhh]j)}(hhh]j)}(h".. image:: figs/Monaco/tab8-28.pngh]h}(h]h]h]h]h]urifigs/Monaco/tab8-28.pngj.}j0j}suhjh joh!h"hKubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jlubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhjh jiubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhj<h j]ubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]colsKuhjh jLubeh}(h]tab8-28ah]h]tab8-28ah]h]jicenterj$70%uhjh jhhh!NhNubh;)}(hhh](h j)}(hhh](h label)}(hhh]h/froehner_method_1981}(hhh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]support_smartquotesuhjh jubh;)}(hhh](h/F.}(hF.h jubh/ }(h h h;)}(hhh](h/K.}(hK.h jƑubh/ }(hjőh jƑubh/Ueki, A.}(hUeki, A.h jƑubjÑh/Ohashi, and Y.}(hOhashi, and Y.h jƑubjÑh/Anayama.}(hAnayama.h jƑubh/ }(hj](h jƑubh/Neutron shielding ability of }(hNeutron shielding ability of h jƑubh/KRAFTON}(hKRAFTONh jƑubh/ }(h h jƑubh/N2}(hN2h jƑubh/-}(h-h jƑubh/Mannan}(hMannanh jƑubh/-}(hjh jƑubh/KRAFTON}(hjh jƑubh/ }(h h jƑubh/N2}(hjh jƑubh/# sandwich-type material and others.}(h# sandwich-type material and others.h jƑubh/ }(hj](h jƑubhA)}(hhh]h/TProc. Topical Mtg. on New Horizons in Radiation Protection and Shielding, ANS, Pasco}(hTProc. Topical Mtg. on New Horizons in Radiation Protection and Shielding, ANS, Pascoh jubah}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh@h jƑubh/, 1992.}(h, 1992.h jƑubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h j)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h/ueki_neutron_1992}(hhh j9ubah}(h]h]h]h]h]juhjh j6ubjƑeh}(h]ueki-neutron-1992ah]jah]ueki_neutron_1992ah]h]jadocnamejuhjh jresolvedKubububh/H. Froehner and R.}(hH. Froehner and R.h jubjÑh/R. Spencer.}(hR. Spencer.h jubjh/8Method for sampling from fission neutron energy spectra.}(h8Method for sampling from fission neutron energy spectra.h jubjh/GTechnical Report ORNL/TM-7631, Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA), 1981.}(hGTechnical Report ORNL/TM-7631, Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA), 1981.h jubeh}(h]h]h]h]h]uhh:h jubeh}(h]froehner-method-1981ah]jah]froehner_method_1981ah]h]jajNjuhjh jjOKubj)}(hhh](j)}(hhh]h/jansky_comparison_1997}(hhh juubah}(h]h]h]h]h]juhjh jrubh;)}(hhh](h/B.}(hB.h jubjÑh/Janskỳ, Z.}(hJanskỳ, Z.h jubjÑh/Turzík, E.}(hTurzík, E.h jubjÑh/
Novák, J.}(h
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