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  <div class="section" id="polaris-2d-light-water-reactor-lattice-physics-module">
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<span id="id1"></span><h1>POLARIS - 2D Light Water Reactor Lattice Physics Module<a class="headerlink" href="#polaris-2d-light-water-reactor-lattice-physics-module" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h1>
<p><em>M. A. Jessee, W. A. Wieselquist, C. A. Gentry, A. M. Holcomb, S. W. Hart</em></p>
<p>ABSTRACT</p>
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<p>Polaris is a new module for SCALE 6.2 that provides 2D lattice physics
analysis capability for light water reactor (LWR) fuel designs. Polaris
uses a new multigroup self-shielding method called the Embedded Self
Shielding Method (ESSM) and a new transport solver based on the Method
of Characteristics (MoC). The ESSM computes multigroup self-shielded
cross sections using Bondarenko interpolation methods. The background
cross section used in the interpolation is determined by iterative 2D
MoC fixed source transport calculations. Polaris is integrated with
ORIGEN for depletion calculations. Each pin—or each radial subregion of
the pin—is depleted based on the local power distribution. An optional
critical spectrum calculation is incorporated into the depletion
calculation and the output edits of few-group homogenized cross
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sections. Few-group cross sections are archived to an <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">xfile016</span></code> file,
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which can be used in subsequent core simulator calculations. Polaris
provides an easy-to-use input format to allow users to set up lattice
models with minimal lines of input.</p>
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<p>ACKNOWLEDGMENTS</p>
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<p>The authors express gratitude to Brad Rearden and Stephen Bowman for
their supervision of Polaris development for the US Nuclear Regulatory
Commission (NRC). The author acknowledges Don Algama and Mourad Aissa of
the NRC for their support of the project. Appreciation is extended to
the ATLAS development team—Jordan Lefebvre, Rob Lefebvre, and Adam
Thompson—for their development of the ATLAS Ray Tracing Geometry package
used in the Polaris MoC solver. Appreciation is also extended to Ugur
Mertyurek, Brian Ade, Ben Betzler, Scott Palmtag, and Andrew Godfrey for
testing and benchmarking efforts and also Sheila Walker for finalizing
the publication of this document.</p>
<div class="section" id="introduction">
<span id="id2"></span><h2>Introduction<a class="headerlink" href="#introduction" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h2>
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<p>Polaris was introduced in SCALE 6.2 to provide 2D lattice physics
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analysis capability for light water reactor (LWR) fuel designs. For
multigroup cross section processing, Polaris uses the Embedded
Self-Shielding Method (ESSM) <a class="bibtex reference internal" href="#williams-embedded-2012" id="id3">[WK12]</a>. Unlike SCALE multigroup sequences that
use XSProc, ESSM does not require user-defined unit cell definitions.
ESSM computes multigroup cross sections using Bondarenko interpolation
methods. The background cross section used in the interpolation is
determined by iterative 2D fixed source transport calculations. Both the
ESSM fixed source calculations and the keff calculation utilize a new
Method of Characteristics (MoC) transport solver developed in the
Exnihilo computational package.</p>
<p>Polaris is integrated with ORIGEN for depletion calculations. Each
pin—or each radial subregion of the pin—is depleted based on the local
power distribution. An optional critical spectrum calculation is
incorporated into the depletion calculation and the output edits of
few-group homogenized cross sections. Few-group cross sections are
archived to an xfile016 file, which can be used in subsequent core
simulator calculations. A complete description of the Polaris
computational methods is provided in <a class="bibtex reference internal" href="#jessee-polaris-2014" id="id4">[JWE+14]</a>.</p>
<p>Polaris provides an easy-to-use input format to allow users to set up
lattice models with minimal lines of input. All recognized Polaris
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commands are shown in <a class="reference internal" href="#tab3-2-1"><span class="std std-numref">Table 39</span></a>. Note that many commands support short
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and long forms. The allowed basic <em>Types</em> for input are described in
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<a class="reference internal" href="#tab3-2-2"><span class="std std-numref">Table 40</span></a>. The special Polaris <em>TYPES</em> are shown in <a class="reference internal" href="#tab3-2-3"><span class="std std-numref">Table 41</span></a>. The
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convention used in this manual is that basic types appear italicized and
capitalized (<em>Type</em>), while special Polaris types appear in all caps
(<em>TYPE</em>).</p>
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<span id="tab3-2-1"></span><table class="docutils align-center" id="id88">
<caption><span class="caption-number">Table 39 </span><span class="caption-text">Polaris commands.</span><a class="headerlink" href="#id88" title="Permalink to this table"></a></caption>
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<colgroup>
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<col style="width: 48%" />
<col style="width: 27%" />
<col style="width: 25%" />
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</colgroup>
<thead>
<tr class="row-odd"><th class="head"><p><em>card</em></p></th>
<th class="head"><p><em>long</em></p>
<p><em>command</em></p>
</th>
<th class="head"><p><em>short</em></p>
<p><em>command(s)</em></p>
</th>
</tr>
</thead>
<tbody>
<tr class="row-even"><td><p>system</p></td>
<td><p>system</p></td>
<td><p>sys</p></td>
</tr>
<tr class="row-odd"><td><p>geometry</p></td>
<td><p>geometry</p></td>
<td><p>geom</p></td>
</tr>
<tr class="row-even"><td><p>composition</p></td>
<td><p>composition</p></td>
<td><p>comp</p></td>
</tr>
<tr class="row-odd"><td><p>property</p></td>
<td><p>property</p></td>
<td><p>prop</p></td>
</tr>
<tr class="row-even"><td><p>material</p></td>
<td><p>material</p></td>
<td><p>mat</p></td>
</tr>
<tr class="row-odd"><td><p>burnup</p></td>
<td><p>bu or dbu</p></td>
<td><ul class="simple">
<li></li>
</ul>
</td>
</tr>
<tr class="row-even"><td><p>power</p></td>
<td><p>power</p></td>
<td><p>pow</p></td>
</tr>
<tr class="row-odd"><td><p>options</p></td>
<td><p>option</p></td>
<td><p>opt</p></td>
</tr>
<tr class="row-even"><td><p>time</p></td>
<td><p>t or dt</p></td>
<td><ul class="simple">
<li></li>
</ul>
</td>
</tr>
<tr class="row-odd"><td><p>state</p></td>
<td><p>state</p></td>
<td><ul class="simple">
<li></li>
</ul>
</td>
</tr>
<tr class="row-even"><td><p>branch block</p></td>
<td><p>branch</p></td>
<td><ul class="simple">
<li></li>
</ul>
</td>
</tr>
<tr class="row-odd"><td><p>pin geometry component</p></td>
<td><p>pin</p></td>
<td><ul class="simple">
<li></li>
</ul>
</td>
</tr>
<tr class="row-even"><td><p>assembly pin map</p></td>
<td><p>pinmap</p></td>
<td><ul class="simple">
<li></li>
</ul>
</td>
</tr>
<tr class="row-odd"><td><p>assembly channel</p></td>
<td><p>channel</p></td>
<td><ul class="simple">
<li></li>
</ul>
</td>
</tr>
<tr class="row-even"><td><p>assembly half gap</p></td>
<td><p>hgap</p></td>
<td><ul class="simple">
<li></li>
</ul>
</td>
</tr>
<tr class="row-odd"><td><p>channel box</p></td>
<td><p>box</p></td>
<td><ul class="simple">
<li></li>
</ul>
</td>
</tr>
<tr class="row-even"><td><p>shield</p></td>
<td><p>shield</p></td>
<td><ul class="simple">
<li></li>
</ul>
</td>
</tr>
<tr class="row-odd"><td><p>deplete</p></td>
<td><p>deplete</p></td>
<td><ul class="simple">
<li></li>
</ul>
</td>
</tr>
<tr class="row-even"><td><p>slab geometry component</p></td>
<td><p>slab</p></td>
<td><ul class="simple">
<li></li>
</ul>
</td>
</tr>
<tr class="row-odd"><td><p>power basis materials</p></td>
<td><p>basis</p></td>
<td><ul class="simple">
<li></li>
</ul>
</td>
</tr>
<tr class="row-even"><td><p>assembly inserts</p></td>
<td><p>insert</p></td>
<td><ul class="simple">
<li></li>
</ul>
</td>
</tr>
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<tr class="row-odd"><td><p>assembly control elements</p>
<p>water cross geometry</p>
<p>displacement maps</p>
<p>spatial meshing</p>
<p>detector tallies</p>
<p>operating histories</p>
<p>restart cumulative burnup</p>
</td>
<td><p>control</p>
<p>cross</p>
<p>dxmap (dymap)</p>
<p>mesh</p>
<p>detector</p>
<p>history</p>
<p>bui (ti)</p>
</td>
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<td><ul class="simple">
<li></li>
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<li></li>
<li></li>
<li></li>
<li></li>
<li></li>
<li></li>
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</ul>
</td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
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<span id="tab3-2-2"></span><table class="docutils align-center" id="id89">
<caption><span class="caption-number">Table 40 </span><span class="caption-text">Basic Types in Polaris input.</span><a class="headerlink" href="#id89" title="Permalink to this table"></a></caption>
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<colgroup>
<col style="width: 25%" />
<col style="width: 25%" />
<col style="width: 25%" />
<col style="width: 25%" />
</colgroup>
<thead>
<tr class="row-odd"><th class="head"><p><em>basic Type</em></p></th>
<th class="head"><p><em>description</em></p></th>
<th class="head"><p><em>examples</em></p></th>
<th class="head"><p><em>incorrect
examples</em></p></th>
</tr>
</thead>
<tbody>
<tr class="row-even"><td><p><em>Word</em></p></td>
<td><p>starts with a
character A-Z
or a-z and
includes
characters,
numbers,
underscores</p></td>
<td><p>uox</p>
<p>bor_water_500pp
m</p>
<p>FUEL</p>
</td>
<td><p>uox_enr5.1</p>
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<p>316SS</p>
<p>uox-3.1</p>
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</td>
</tr>
<tr class="row-odd"><td><p><em>Int</em></p></td>
<td><p>integer</p></td>
<td><p>17</p>
<p>92235</p>
<p>2</p>
<p>565</p>
</td>
<td><p>31.4
uox</p></td>
</tr>
<tr class="row-even"><td><p><em>Bool</em></p></td>
<td><p>boolean/logical</p></td>
<td><p>yes</p>
<p>false</p>
</td>
<td><p>TRUE
No</p></td>
</tr>
<tr class="row-odd"><td><p><em>Real</em></p></td>
<td><p>any number</p></td>
<td><p>565</p>
<p>10.257</p>
<p>1.5e-6</p>
</td>
<td><p>yes
bor_water</p></td>
</tr>
<tr class="row-even"><td><p><em>String</em></p></td>
<td><p>a single or
double quoted
string</p></td>
<td><p>“INFMED”</p>
<p>“Includes
spaces”</p>
<p>‘NONE’</p>
</td>
<td><p>Includes spaces</p></td>
</tr>
<tr class="row-odd"><td><p><em>Value</em></p></td>
<td><p>any non-word</p></td>
<td></td>
<td><p><em>Int</em>|<em>Bool</em>|<em>Real</em>|<em>String</em></p></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
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<span id="tab3-2-3"></span><table class="docutils align-center" id="id90">
<caption><span class="caption-number">Table 41 </span><span class="caption-text">Special Polaris Types.</span><a class="headerlink" href="#id90" title="Permalink to this table"></a></caption>
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<colgroup>
<col style="width: 33%" />
<col style="width: 33%" />
<col style="width: 33%" />
</colgroup>
<thead>
<tr class="row-odd"><th class="head"><p><em>Polaris Type</em></p></th>
<th class="head"><p><em>description</em></p></th>
<th class="head"><p><em>Variants</em></p></th>
</tr>
</thead>
<tbody>
<tr class="row-even"><td><p><em>STYPE</em></p></td>
<td><p>system type</p></td>
<td><p><em>PWR</em>|<em>BWR</em></p></td>
</tr>
<tr class="row-odd"><td><p><em>GTYPE</em></p></td>
<td><p>geometry type</p></td>
<td><p><em>ASSM</em>|<em>REFL</em></p></td>
</tr>
<tr class="row-even"><td><p><em>CTYPE</em></p></td>
<td><p>composition type</p></td>
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<td><p><em>NUM</em>|<em>WT</em>|<em>FORM</em>|<em>CONC</em><a href="#id5"><span class="problematic" id="id6">|</span></a><em>LW</em>|<em>UOX</em><a href="#id7"><span class="problematic" id="id8">|</span></a><em>ENRU</em>|<em>UN</em>|<em>USI</em></p></td>
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</tr>
<tr class="row-odd"><td><p><em>PTYPE</em></p></td>
<td><p>property type</p></td>
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<td><p><em>SOLP</em>|<em>DOPANT</em></p></td>
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</tr>
<tr class="row-even"><td><p><em>ETYPE</em></p></td>
<td><p>control element type</p></td>
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<td><p><em>RODLET</em>|<em>BLADE</em></p></td>
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</tr>
<tr class="row-odd"><td><p><em>OTYPE</em></p></td>
<td><p>option type</p></td>
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<td><p><em>KEFF</em>|<em>BOND</em><a href="#id9"><span class="problematic" id="id10">|</span></a><em>ESSM</em>|<em>CRITS
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PEC</em>|<em>FG</em>|*
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DEPL*|<em>RUN</em>|<em>PRINT</em>|<em>GAMMA</em>
|<em>GEOM</em></p></td>
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</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<p>The Polaris input supports a very flexible input scheme that allows some
elements to be suppressed for better readability. With <em>key=value</em> type
input, when the standard order of keys is used, the keys may be
suppressed. Consider the following input specification as an example.</p>
<div class="highlight-scale notranslate"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span><span class="err">geometry</span> <span class="err">GNAME</span> <span class="err">:</span> <span class="err">ASSM</span> <span class="err">npins=Int</span> <span class="err">ppitch=Real</span> <span class="err">[sym=FULL|SE]</span>
</pre></div>
</div>
<p>The geometry card requires a geometry name (GNAME) in the first group,
then a geometry type (<em>GTYPE</em>) which is <em>ASSM</em> here indicating an
assembly geometry. The remaining arguments have keys: “npins” with an
integer value, “ppitch” with a real value, and the optional “sym” with
either <em>FULL</em> or <em>SE</em> values (optional arguments are always shown in
square brackets: [sym=*FULL*|<em>SE</em>]. The default value is
underlined: (<em>FULL</em>). The pipe “|” shows an <em>or</em> relation i.e., <em>FULL</em>
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or <em>SE</em> is an acceptable value ). With the flexible input processing, the following inputs are all valid
and identical.</p>
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<div class="highlight-scale notranslate"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span><span class="err">geometry</span> <span class="err">FuelNode</span> <span class="err">:</span> <span class="err">ASSM</span> <span class="err">npins=</span><span class="m">15</span> <span class="err">ppitch=</span><span class="m">1</span><span class="err">.</span><span class="m">43</span> <span class="err">sym=FULL</span>
<span class="err">geometry</span> <span class="err">FuelNode</span> <span class="err">:</span> <span class="err">ASSM</span> <span class="m">15</span> <span class="m">1</span><span class="err">.</span><span class="m">43</span> <span class="err">FULL</span>
<span class="err">geometry</span> <span class="err">FuelNode</span> <span class="err">:</span> <span class="err">ASSM</span> <span class="err">sym=FULL</span> <span class="err">ppitch=</span><span class="m">1</span><span class="err">.</span><span class="m">43</span> <span class="err">npins=</span><span class="m">15</span>
<span class="err">geometry</span> <span class="err">FuelNode</span> <span class="err">:</span> <span class="err">ASSM</span> <span class="m">15</span> <span class="m">1</span><span class="err">.</span><span class="m">43</span>
<span class="err">geometry</span> <span class="err">FuelNode</span> <span class="err">ASSM</span> <span class="m">15</span> <span class="m">1</span><span class="err">.</span><span class="m">43</span>
</pre></div>
</div>
<p>The group separator “:” is suppressed in the last variant. This is
possible in any situation where (1) the group is implicitly terminated
by running out of arguments or (2) the next type does not match the
expected type in the current group. For example, consider the hgap card:</p>
<div class="highlight-scale notranslate"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span><span class="err">hgap</span> <span class="err">[</span> <span class="err">d</span> <span class="err">]</span> <span class="err">[:</span> <span class="err">M</span> <span class="err">]</span>
</pre></div>
</div>
<p>In this card, d and M are values (without keys) defined as <em>Real</em> and
material name (MNAME), respectively. The following form would
automatically bypass the <em>Real</em> value, which allows a default, and set
the interassembly gap material name as COOL.2.</p>
<div class="highlight-scale notranslate"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span><span class="err">hgap</span> <span class="err">COOL.</span><span class="m">2</span>
</pre></div>
</div>
</div>
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<div class="section" id="scale-6-3-polaris-input-updates">
<span id="id11"></span><h2>SCALE 6.3 Polaris Input Updates<a class="headerlink" href="#scale-6-3-polaris-input-updates" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h2>
<p>For the release of SCALE 6.2.3, several new input cards were implemented
into Polaris to model boiling water reactor (BWR) geometries and
neutron/gamma detectors, which requires a gamma transport calculation.
Moreover, improvements to existing input cards were implemented, along
with the ability to specify time-dependent state properties and the
ability to specify one or more depletion histories. This section
describes the new and modified input cards that are included in the
Polaris input format for SCALE 6.3, which are accessible as part of the
release of SCALE 6.2.3.</p>
<p>To maximize backwards compatibility for input files developed with the
original SCALE 6.2.0 release, the new and modified input cards are not
available <em>by default</em> with SCALE 6.2.3. The new and modified input
cards were activated if the input file begins with =polaris_6.3 rather
than =polaris. The suffix “_6.3” is an indicator to the Polaris input
processor to use the SCALE 6.3 input format. For the SCALE 6.3 release,
the original input cards supported in the SCALE 6.2 input format will be
available if the input file begins with =polaris_6.2, with the new SCALE
6.3 defaults being used for inputs with =polaris.</p>
<p>The new input cards to model BWR geometries include:</p>
<ul class="simple">
<li><p><strong>cross</strong> – define the interior water cross geometry of SVEA assembly
designs;</p></li>
<li><p><strong>dxmap</strong> (or <strong>dymap</strong>) – define displacement maps that indicate
that translation of the pin center in the x- (or y-) direction;</p></li>
<li><p><strong>control &lt;BLADE&gt;</strong> - define the control blade geometry;</p></li>
<li><p><strong>mesh</strong> – define advanced spatial meshing options for different
materials; and</p></li>
<li><p><strong>option &lt;GEOM&gt;</strong> – define geometry tolerances, advance meshing
options, and plotting options.</p></li>
</ul>
<p>The modified input cards to model BWR geometries include:</p>
<ul class="simple">
<li><p><strong>pin</strong> – define circular and square-based geometry zones, as well as
arbitrarily sized pins, e.g. size=1.5 water rod in some 9x9 BWR
lattice designs; and</p></li>
<li><p><strong>box</strong> – define channel box geometry with arbitrary number of zones
and cutout regions.</p></li>
</ul>
<p>For neutron/gamma detector modeling, there is a new <strong>detector</strong> card
and an addition to the existing <strong>option &lt;FG&gt;</strong> card to enable output to
the few-group cross section output (T16) file.</p>
<p>To control the gamma calculation, an <strong>option &lt;GAMMA&gt;</strong> has been added.</p>
<p>A grain property was added to model materials with randomly distributed
grains, e.g. TRISO.</p>
<p>The new input cards for time-dependent modeling include:</p>
<ul class="simple">
<li><p><strong>history</strong> – define one or more operating histories in the input
file; and</p></li>
<li><p><strong>bui</strong> (or <strong>ti</strong>) – define restart cumulative burnup (or time)
values.</p></li>
</ul>
<p>The modified input cards for time-dependent modeling include:</p>
<ul class="simple">
<li><p><strong>state</strong> – define one or more time-independent or time-dependent
state properties;</p></li>
<li><p><strong>bu</strong> (or <strong>t</strong>) – define cumulative burnup (or time) values; and</p></li>
<li><p><strong>dbu</strong> (or <strong>dt</strong>) – define incremental burnup (or time) values.</p></li>
</ul>
<p>Example input files are included in the ${SCALE}/regression/input
directory:</p>
<ul class="simple">
<li><p>polaris.6.3.atrium9x9.inp and polaris.6.3.atrium10x10.inp –
prototypic ATRIUM models;</p></li>
<li><p>polaris.6.3.blade1.inp and polaris.6.3.blade2.inp – control &lt;BLADE&gt;
examples;</p></li>
<li><p>polaris.6.3.ge7x7.inp through polaris.6.3.ge10x10.inp – prototypic GE
models;</p></li>
<li><p>polaris.6.3.svea100.inp and polaris.6.3.svea64.inp – prototypic SVEA
models; and</p></li>
<li><p>polarisHistory.inp: history example.</p></li>
</ul>
</div>
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<div class="section" id="setup">
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<span id="id12"></span><h2>Setup<a class="headerlink" href="#setup" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h2>
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<p>The cards in this section generally appear at the beginning of an input
file. Note that the manual is organized with each card starting a new
page. This is especially convenient when printing a few cards across
different sections.</p>
<div class="section" id="title-case-title-lines">
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<span id="id13"></span><h3>title – case title lines<a class="headerlink" href="#title-case-title-lines" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h3>
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<p><strong>title</strong> Line<sub>1</sub> Line<sub>2</sub> … Line<sub>i</sub>
Line<sub>N</sub></p>
<table class="docutils align-default">
<colgroup>
<col style="width: 20%" />
<col style="width: 12%" />
<col style="width: 12%" />
<col style="width: 35%" />
<col style="width: 21%" />
</colgroup>
<tbody>
<tr class="row-odd"><td><p><strong>param</strong></p></td>
<td><p><strong>type</strong></p></td>
<td><p><strong>name</strong></p></td>
<td><p><strong>details</strong></p></td>
<td><p><strong>default</strong></p></td>
</tr>
<tr class="row-even"><td><p>Line<sub>i</sub></p></td>
<td><p><em>String</em></p></td>
<td><p>line</p></td>
<td><p>used in output file headers</p></td>
<td><p>“DEFAULT TITLE”</p></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<p>Examples:</p>
<div class="highlight-scale notranslate"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span><span class="err">title</span> <span class="s">&quot;Westinghouse 15x15&quot;</span>

<span class="err">title</span> <span class="s">&quot;Westinghouse 15x15&quot;</span>
        <span class="s">&quot;Condition: Hot Full Power&quot;</span>
        <span class="s">&quot;Date: 10/18/2012&quot;</span>
</pre></div>
</div>
<p>Comments:</p>
<p>The <strong>title</strong> card gives a title to this Polaris case, which appears as
a descriptive header on the output file. The additional lines may be
used to document a subcase or to embed additional information in the
output file in an orderly way (e.g., author, date, project identifier).</p>
<p>The <strong>title</strong> card is optional.</p>
<p>See also:</p>
<p><strong>lib</strong></p>
</div>
<div class="section" id="library-nuclear-data-libraries">
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<span id="id14"></span><h3>library – nuclear data libraries<a class="headerlink" href="#library-nuclear-data-libraries" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h3>
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<p><strong>lib</strong> [mg=*String*]</p>
<table class="docutils align-default">
<colgroup>
<col style="width: 20%" />
<col style="width: 20%" />
<col style="width: 20%" />
<col style="width: 20%" />
<col style="width: 20%" />
</colgroup>
<tbody>
<tr class="row-odd"><td><p><strong>param</strong></p></td>
<td><p><strong>type</strong></p></td>
<td><p><strong>name</strong></p></td>
<td><p><strong>details</strong></p></td>
<td><p><strong>default</strong></p></td>
</tr>
<tr class="row-even"><td><p>mg</p></td>
<td><p><em>String</em></p></td>
<td><p>multigroup
library</p></td>
<td><p>multigroup
cross
section
library</p></td>
<td><p>“fine_n”</p></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<p>Examples:</p>
<div class="highlight-scale notranslate"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span><span class="err">%</span> <span class="err">a</span> <span class="err">name</span> <span class="err">of</span> <span class="err">library</span> <span class="err">in</span> <span class="err">the</span> <span class="err">DATA</span> <span class="err">directory</span>
<span class="err">%</span> <span class="err">use</span> <span class="err">SCALE</span> <span class="m">252</span><span class="err">g</span> <span class="err">ENDF/B-VII.</span><span class="m">1</span> <span class="err">library</span>
<span class="err">lib</span> <span class="s">&quot;fine_n&quot;</span>   <span class="err">%</span> <span class="err">SAME</span> <span class="err">AS</span> <span class="s">&quot;V7-252&quot;</span>

<span class="err">%</span> <span class="err">use</span> <span class="err">SCALE</span> <span class="m">56</span><span class="err">g</span> <span class="err">ENDF/B-VII.</span><span class="m">1</span> <span class="err">library</span>
<span class="err">lib</span> <span class="err">mg=</span><span class="s">&quot;broad_n&quot;</span>   <span class="err">%</span> <span class="err">SAME</span> <span class="err">AS</span> <span class="err">mg=</span><span class="s">&quot;V7-56&quot;</span>

<span class="err">%</span> <span class="err">a</span> <span class="err">name</span> <span class="err">of</span> <span class="err">a</span> <span class="err">local</span> <span class="err">library</span> <span class="err">in</span> <span class="err">the</span> <span class="err">temporary</span> <span class="err">working</span> <span class="err">directory</span>
<span class="err">%</span> <span class="err">(useful</span> <span class="err">in</span> <span class="err">SAMPLER</span> <span class="err">calculations)</span>
<span class="err">lib</span> <span class="s">&quot;perturbed_xs_library&quot;</span>

<span class="err">%</span> <span class="err">fully</span> <span class="err">specified</span> <span class="err">path</span>
<span class="err">lib</span> <span class="s">&quot;C:\scale6.2\data\scale.rev04.xn252v7.1&quot;</span>
</pre></div>
</div>
<p>Comments:</p>
<p>The <strong>lib</strong> card specifies the multigroup library location. See SCALE’s
FileNameAliases.txt file in the installation directory for up-to-date
library aliases for the fine and broad group libraries provided in
SCALE’s data directory. Only the 252-group and the 56-group cross
section libraries can be used in Polaris. Full specification of the file
path is acceptable, as in the final example shown above.</p>
<p>The <strong>lib</strong> card is optional.</p>
<p>See also:</p>
<p><strong>title</strong></p>
</div>
</div>
<div class="section" id="geometry">
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<span id="id15"></span><h2>Geometry<a class="headerlink" href="#geometry" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h2>
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<p>The highest level structures in the model are named and defined with a
<strong>geometry</strong> card. The general outline for a geometry definition is
shown below. Two types of geometry are currently supported, <em>ASSM</em> for
pressurized water reactor (PWR) or boiling water reactor (BWR)
assemblies with fuel elements in a square-pitch, and <em>REFL</em> for an
assembly-adjacent reflector.</p>
<p><strong>geom</strong> GNAME : GTYPE <em>arguments</em></p>
<table class="docutils align-default">
<colgroup>
<col style="width: 16%" />
<col style="width: 10%" />
<col style="width: 27%" />
<col style="width: 33%" />
<col style="width: 14%" />
</colgroup>
<tbody>
<tr class="row-odd"><td><p><em>argument</em></p></td>
<td><p><em>type</em></p></td>
<td><p><em>name</em></p></td>
<td><p><em>details</em></p></td>
<td><p><em>default</em></p></td>
</tr>
<tr class="row-even"><td><p>GNAME</p></td>
<td><p><em>Word</em></p></td>
<td><p>geometry name</p></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
</tr>
<tr class="row-odd"><td><p><em>GTYPE</em></p></td>
<td><p><em>-</em></p></td>
<td><p>geometry type</p></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
</tr>
<tr class="row-even"><td></td>
<td><p><em>ASSM</em></p></td>
<td><p>assembly</p></td>
<td><p>see <strong>pin</strong> &amp; <strong>pinmap</strong></p></td>
<td></td>
</tr>
<tr class="row-odd"><td></td>
<td><p><em>REFL</em></p></td>
<td><p>reflector</p></td>
<td><p>see <strong>slab</strong></p></td>
<td></td>
</tr>
<tr class="row-even"><td><p><em>arguments</em></p></td>
<td><ul class="simple">
<li></li>
</ul>
</td>
<td><p>remaining arguments</p></td>
<td><p>depends on <em>GTYPE</em></p></td>
<td></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<p>The control element geometry is also enumerated with types, as shown
below. To model PWR-type rod cluster control assemblies (RCCAs), the
<em>RODLET</em> element type is used in conjunction with <strong>pin</strong> definitions.
In future releases of Polaris, other control element types, such as
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BWR-type control blades will be supported..</p>
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<p><strong>control</strong> INAME : ETYPE <em>arguments</em></p>
<table class="docutils align-default">
<colgroup>
<col style="width: 17%" />
<col style="width: 13%" />
<col style="width: 29%" />
<col style="width: 26%" />
<col style="width: 14%" />
</colgroup>
<tbody>
<tr class="row-odd"><td><p><em>Argument</em></p></td>
<td><p><em>type</em></p></td>
<td><p><em>name</em></p></td>
<td><p><em>details</em></p></td>
<td><p><em>default</em></p></td>
</tr>
<tr class="row-even"><td><p>INAME</p></td>
<td><p><em>Word</em></p></td>
<td><p>control element name</p></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
</tr>
<tr class="row-odd"><td><p><em>ETYPE</em></p></td>
<td><p><em>-</em></p></td>
<td><p>control element type</p></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
</tr>
<tr class="row-even"><td></td>
<td><p><em>RODLET</em></p></td>
<td><p>PWR-type RCCA</p></td>
<td><p>requires PINIDs</p></td>
<td></td>
</tr>
<tr class="row-odd"><td><p><em>arguments</em></p></td>
<td><ul class="simple">
<li></li>
</ul>
</td>
<td><p>remaining arguments</p></td>
<td><p>depends on <em>ETYPE</em></p></td>
<td></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
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<div class="section" id="eometry-assm-assembly">
<span id="id16"></span><h3>eometry&lt;ASSM&gt; – assembly<a class="headerlink" href="#eometry-assm-assembly" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h3>
<div class="line-block">
<div class="line"><strong>geom</strong> GNAME : <em>ASSM</em></div>
<div class="line-block">
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<div class="line">npins=<em>Int</em></div>
<div class="line">ppitch=<em>Real</em></div>
<div class="line">[sym=*FULL|SE*]</div>
</div>
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</div>
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<table class="docutils align-default">
<colgroup>
<col style="width: 15%" />
<col style="width: 14%" />
<col style="width: 22%" />
<col style="width: 32%" />
<col style="width: 18%" />
</colgroup>
<tbody>
<tr class="row-odd"><td><p><strong>param</strong></p></td>
<td><p><strong>type</strong></p></td>
<td><p><strong>name</strong></p></td>
<td><p><strong>details</strong></p></td>
<td><p><strong>default</strong></p></td>
</tr>
<tr class="row-even"><td><p>GNAME</p></td>
<td><p><em>Word</em></p></td>
<td><p>assembly name</p></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
</tr>
<tr class="row-odd"><td><p><em>GTYPE</em></p></td>
<td><p><em>ASSM</em></p></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
</tr>
<tr class="row-even"><td><p>npins</p></td>
<td><p><em>Int</em></p></td>
<td><p>number of pins</p></td>
<td><p>on each side of
the assembly</p></td>
<td></td>
</tr>
<tr class="row-odd"><td><p>ppitch</p></td>
<td><p>Real</p></td>
<td><p>pin pitch</p></td>
<td><p>units: cm</p></td>
<td></td>
</tr>
<tr class="row-even"><td><p>sym</p></td>
<td><p>FULL|SE</p></td>
<td><p>symmetry</p></td>
<td><p>assembly symmetry
FULL: no symmetry
SE: south-east quarter</p></td>
<td><p><em>FULL</em></p></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<p>Examples:</p>
<div class="highlight-scale notranslate"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span><span class="err">%</span> <span class="err">simple</span> <span class="err">pincell</span>
<span class="err">geom</span> <span class="err">MyPin</span> <span class="err">:</span> <span class="err">ASSM</span> <span class="m">1</span> <span class="m">1</span><span class="err">.</span><span class="m">5</span>

<span class="err">%</span> <span class="m">17</span><span class="err">x</span><span class="m">17</span> <span class="err">Westinghouse</span> <span class="err">with</span> <span class="m">1</span><span class="err">.</span><span class="m">26</span> <span class="err">cm</span> <span class="err">pin</span> <span class="err">pitch</span> <span class="err">in</span> <span class="err">quarter</span> <span class="err">symmetry</span>
<span class="err">geom</span> <span class="err">FuelNode</span> <span class="err">:</span> <span class="err">ASSM</span> <span class="m">17</span> <span class="m">1</span><span class="err">.</span><span class="m">26</span> <span class="err">sym=SE</span>
</pre></div>
</div>
<p>Comments:</p>
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<p>Examples:</p>
<p>% simple pincell</p>
<p>geom MyPin : ASSM 1 1.5</p>
<p>% 17x17 Westinghouse with 1.26 cm pin pitch in quarter symmetry</p>
<p>geom FuelNode : ASSM 17 1.26 sym=SE</p>
<p>Comments:</p>
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<p>The assembly geometry describes the basic elements of an assembly. The
<strong>pin</strong> and <strong>pinmap</strong> cards are required to finalize the assembly
geometry. The <strong>hgap</strong> card specifies the interassembly half gap, and
the <strong>channel</strong> specifies the channel material for the assembly.</p>
<p>See also:</p>
<p><strong>pinmap</strong>, <strong>pin, hgap, box, channel, control</strong>, <strong>insert</strong></p>
</div>
<div class="section" id="geometry-refl-reflector">
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<span id="id17"></span><h3>geometry&lt;REFL&gt; – reflector<a class="headerlink" href="#geometry-refl-reflector" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h3>
<div class="line-block">
<div class="line"><strong>geom</strong> GNAME : <em>REFL</em></div>
<div class="line-block">
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<div class="line">thick=<em>REAL</em></div>
</div>
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</div>
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<table class="docutils align-default">
<colgroup>
<col style="width: 17%" />
<col style="width: 16%" />
<col style="width: 25%" />
<col style="width: 21%" />
<col style="width: 21%" />
</colgroup>
<tbody>
<tr class="row-odd"><td><p><strong>param</strong></p></td>
<td><p><strong>type</strong></p></td>
<td><p><strong>name</strong></p></td>
<td><p><strong>details</strong></p></td>
<td><p><strong>default</strong></p></td>
</tr>
<tr class="row-even"><td><p>GNAME</p></td>
<td><p><em>Word</em></p></td>
<td><p>reflector name</p></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
</tr>
<tr class="row-odd"><td><p><em>GTYPE</em></p></td>
<td><p><em>REFL</em></p></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
</tr>
<tr class="row-even"><td><p>thick</p></td>
<td><p><em>Real</em></p></td>
<td><p>thickness</p></td>
<td><p>units: cm</p></td>
<td></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<p>Examples:</p>
<div class="highlight-scale notranslate"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span><span class="err">%</span> <span class="err">defines</span> <span class="err">a</span> <span class="m">20</span> <span class="err">cm</span> <span class="err">reflector</span>
<span class="err">geom</span> <span class="err">ReflectorNode</span> <span class="err">:</span> <span class="err">REFL</span> <span class="m">20</span><span class="err">.</span><span class="m">0</span>
</pre></div>
</div>
<p>Comments:</p>
<p>The reflector geometry describes the basic elements of a simple
slab-type reflector. The <strong>slab</strong> card can be used to define geometric
dimensions and mesh for the reflector geometry.</p>
<p>See also:</p>
<p><strong>slab</strong></p>
</div>
<div class="section" id="channel-materials-and-mesh-options">
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<span id="id18"></span><h3>Channel – materials and mesh options<a class="headerlink" href="#channel-materials-and-mesh-options" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h3>
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<p><strong>channel</strong> [M<sub>chan</sub> =MCLASS]</p>
<table class="docutils align-default">
<colgroup>
<col style="width: 20%" />
<col style="width: 20%" />
<col style="width: 20%" />
<col style="width: 20%" />
<col style="width: 20%" />
</colgroup>
<tbody>
<tr class="row-odd"><td><p><strong>param</strong></p></td>
<td><p><strong>type</strong></p></td>
<td><p><strong>name</strong></p></td>
<td><p><strong>details</strong></p></td>
<td><p><strong>default</strong></p></td>
</tr>
<tr class="row-even"><td><p>M<sub>chan</sub></p></td>
<td><p>MCLASS</p></td>
<td><p>material
class</p></td>
<td><p>initializes
materials
in
outermost
<strong>pin</strong>
zone</p></td>
<td><p>*</p></td>
</tr>
<tr class="row-odd"><td><p>*By
default,
M<sub>chan</sub>
will be set
to COOL by
“system
PWR” and
“system
BWR.”
Otherwise,
M<sub>chan</sub>
is
required.</p></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<p>Examples:</p>
<div class="highlight-scale notranslate"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span><span class="err">%</span> <span class="err">define</span> <span class="err">the</span> <span class="err">channel</span> <span class="err">material</span> <span class="err">class</span> <span class="err">to</span> <span class="err">be</span> <span class="err">COOL</span>
<span class="err">channel</span> <span class="err">COOL</span>
</pre></div>
</div>
<p>Comments:</p>
<p>The <strong>channel</strong> card is used to set the default channel material class
for the outermost region of each pin, typically containing reactor
coolant. See the <strong>material</strong> card for a description of material
classes.</p>
<p>See also:</p>
<p><strong>pin, material, geometry&lt;ASSM&gt;</strong></p>
</div>
<div class="section" id="hgap-half-distance-between-assemblies">
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<span id="id19"></span><h3>hgap – half distance between assemblies<a class="headerlink" href="#hgap-half-distance-between-assemblies" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h3>
<div class="line-block">
<div class="line"><strong>hgap</strong> [ d<sub>E</sub> d<sub>N</sub> d<sub>W</sub> d<sub>S</sub> ]</div>
<div class="line-block">
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<div class="line">[: M<sub>E</sub> M<sub>N</sub> M<sub>W</sub> M<sub>S</sub> ]</div>
<div class="line">[: nf<sub>E</sub> nf<sub>N</sub> nf<sub>W</sub> nf<sub>S</sub> ]</div>
<div class="line">[: nd<sub>E</sub> nd<sub>N</sub> nd<sub>W</sub> nd<sub>S</sub> ]</div>
</div>
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</div>
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<table class="docutils align-default">
<colgroup>
<col style="width: 20%" />
<col style="width: 20%" />
<col style="width: 20%" />
<col style="width: 20%" />
<col style="width: 20%" />
</colgroup>
<tbody>
<tr class="row-odd"><td><p><strong>param</strong></p></td>
<td><p><strong>type</strong></p></td>
<td><p><strong>name</strong></p></td>
<td><p><strong>details</strong></p></td>
<td><p><strong>default</strong></p></td>
</tr>
<tr class="row-even"><td><p>d<sub>i</sub></p></td>
<td><p><em>Real</em></p></td>
<td><p>list of
widths
<em>with i</em>:</p>
<p><em>E:</em> east</p>
<p><em>N:</em> north</p>
<p><em>W:</em> west</p>
<p><em>S</em>: south</p>
</td>
<td><p>accepts 1,
2, or 4
values</p>
<p>E: all
hgaps are
same</p>
<p>E+N:
d<sub>E</sub>
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=d:sub:
<cite>S</cite>
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and
d<sub>N</sub>
=d<sub>W</sub></p>
<p>units: cm</p>
</td>
<td><p>0.0</p></td>
</tr>
<tr class="row-odd"><td><p>M<sub>i</sub></p></td>
<td><p>MNAME</p></td>
<td><p>list of</p>
<p>material
names</p>
</td>
<td><p>requires
same # as
d<sub>i</sub></p></td>
<td><p>*</p></td>
</tr>
<tr class="row-even"><td><p><strong>meshing
options</strong></p></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
</tr>
<tr class="row-odd"><td><p>nf<sub>i</sub></p></td>
<td><p><em>Int</em></p></td>
<td><p>list of</p>
<p>number of
faces per
pin</p>
</td>
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